Diabetic retinopathy is associated with early autonomic dysfunction assessed by exercise-related heart rate changes.


Diabetic retinopathy has been associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Heart rate (HR) changes during exercise testing indicate early alterations in autonomous tonus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of diabetic retinopathy with exercise-related HR changes. A… (More)

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