Diabetic retinopathy: Breaking the barrier.

@article{Eshaq2017DiabeticRB,
  title={Diabetic retinopathy: Breaking the barrier.},
  author={Randa S. Eshaq and Alaa M. Z. Aldalati and Jonathan Steven Alexander and Norman R. Harris},
  journal={Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology},
  year={2017},
  volume={24 4},
  pages={
          229-241
        }
}

The cells involved in the pathological process of diabetic retinopathy.

Early Neural Changes as Underlying Pathophysiological Mechanism in Diabetic Retinopathy

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This review will summarize the current status of knowledge regarding pathophysiological mechanisms underlying DR, with a special focus on early neural modifications associated with DR, and describes hyperglycemia-associated molecular and cellular alterations linked to the initiation and progression of DR.

Potential Interplay between Hyperosmolarity and Inflammation on Retinal Pigmented Epithelium in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy

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The possible origins and consequences of hyperosmolar stress on retinal pigmented epithelial cells during diabetic retinopathy are reviewed, with a special focus on the intimate interplay between inflammation and hyperos molar stress, as well as the current and forthcoming new pharmacotherapies for the treatment of such condition.

Pericytes, inflammation, and diabetic retinopathy

TLDR
The microvascular features of DR are described, and how pericyte depletion and low-grade chronic inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of this common ophthalmic disorder.

Role of Antioxidant in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Tanya Loomba
  • Medicine
    International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology
  • 2019
TLDR
This review provides an overview of pathways related to diabetic retinopathy and how antioxidant used in prevention, treatment and control of diabetic retInopathy and role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in down regulating oxidative stress are provided.

Nutraceuticals for the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy

TLDR
In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that a variety of nutraceuticals have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may inhibit the early diabetes-driven molecular mechanisms that induce DR, reducing both the neural and vascular damage typical of DR.

Effects of Diabetes on Microcirculation and Leukostasis in Retinal and Non-Ocular Tissues: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy

TLDR
Understanding diabetes-induced microcirculatory changes in cremaster and ear lobe may provide insight into retinal vascular lesion development in DR.

IGF-1, Inflammation and Retinal Degeneration: A Close Network

TLDR
Recent insights of inflammation as a common feature of retinal diseases (AMD, RP and RD) are provided highlighting the role of microglia, exosomes and IGF-1 in this process.

Preventive Efficacy of an Antioxidant Compound on Blood Retinal Barrier Breakdown and Visual Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

TLDR
The present demonstration that natural compounds, possibly as a consequence of vascular rescue following ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation, may prevent the apoptotic cascade leading to ERG dysfunction, adds further relevance to the potential application of antioxidants as a preventive therapy to counteract DR progression.

Microglia and Inflammatory Responses in Diabetic Retinopathy

TLDR
Evidence of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecules associated with the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy are provided and innovative animal models that can mimic the disease in humans are highlighted.
...

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TLDR
The evidence for oxidative stress, growth factors, and other cytokines in tight junction regulation and vascular permeability in DR is examined.

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Questions remain to be answered before the authors can confidently target pathological signals in diabetic retinopathy and provide the basis for new therapeutic interventions in a debilitating ocular condition.

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The aim of this paper is to introduce the multiple interconnecting biochemical pathways that have been proposed and tested as key contributors in the development of diabetic retinopathy, namely, increased polyol pathway, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the affection of the retina in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The basic causative factor is prolonged hyperglycaemia. DR is microangiopathy, ie impairment of

Photoreceptor cells are major contributors to diabetes-induced oxidative stress and local inflammation in the retina

TLDR
It is shown that most of the oxidative stress in retinas of diabetic mice emanates from neural photoreceptor cells, and elimination of these cells in diabetes inhibits both the oxidativestress and inflammatory changes shown to cause the vascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy.

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TLDR
The role for increased aldose reductase activity in retinal capillary cell loss and formation of acellular capillaries, capillary basement membrane thickening, increased vascular permeability and disruption of blood-retinal barrier, and increased leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells associated with early diabetic retinopathy are described.

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Diabetic retinopathy, a vision-threatening disease, has been regarded as a vascular disorder. However, impaired oscillatory potentials (OPs) in the electroretinogram (ERG) and visual dysfunction are

Molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complications

TLDR
Effective therapies for diabetic complications need to inhibit mechanisms induced by hyperglycemia’s toxic effects and also enhance the endogenous protective factors, which play important roles in maintaining vascular homeostasis.
...