Diabetic Retinopathy and Systemic Factors

  title={Diabetic Retinopathy and Systemic Factors},
  author={Robert N. Frank},
  booktitle={Middle East African journal of ophthalmology},
Diabetic retinopathy, an oculardisease, is governed by systemic as well as local ocular factors. These include primarily chronic levels of blood glucose. Individuals with chronically elevated blood glucose levels have substantially more, and more severe, retinopathy than those with lower blood glucose levels. The relationship of blood glucose to retinopathy is continuous, with no threshold although individuals with hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of chronic glycemia) <6.5%, generally develop… CONTINUE READING
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