OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) research activities, highlighting diabetes-related research. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes is an important component of the VA research portfolio. All four VA research services support aspects of diabetes research. VA diabetes research projects and funding were examined from 1998 to 2003. RESULTS VA scientists are conducting research on diabetes genetics, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, epidemiology, health services, and rehabilitation. VA research funding is available to answer important veteran-relevant questions through peer review, Center of Excellence activities, and multisite trial mechanisms. Many VA scientists also receive research support from nonfederal sources, including private corporations and nonprofit foundations. The VA Office of Research and Development actively supports training the next generation of researchers through their career development awards and the VA health profession training programs. CONCLUSIONS The VA's diabetes research portfolio is extensive and includes many investigators, trainees, and fellows. There is substantial leveraging of VA diabetes research with support from other federal and nonfederal funding agencies, foundations, and private corporations. VA diabetes research findings benefit the global diabetes care community.