Dexmedetomidine as an anaesthetic adjuvant in patients undergoing intracranial tumour surgery: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study.
Objective: In this double-blind prospective clinical study, we investigated the eff ects of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine as adjuvant agents in supratentorial craniotomies on the following: hemodynamic changes during perioperative and recovery periods, brain edema perioperatively, recovery times and side eff ects, such as hypertension, shivering, nausea and vomiting. Materials and Methods: Thirty consenting ASA physical status I-II patients undergoing intracranial tumor surgery were randomly divided in two groups. In group D (n=15), dexmedetomidine was infused as a 1 μg/kg bolus dose 10 minutes before induction of anesthesia and maintained with 0.4-0.5 μg/kg/ min during the operation. In group F (n=15), animals were given fentanyl 0.02 μg/kg/min as an infusion for anesthesia maintenance. At induction, fentanyl was given as a 2 μg/kg dose in group D and as a 4 μg/kg dose in group F. Hemodynamic changes, recovery times and postoperative side eff ects were recorded before induction, during the perioperative period and 24 hours postoperatively. Results: In group D; MAP and HR values after intubation, after skull clamp insertion and after extubation were lower than in group F (p<0.05). In group D, cerebral relaxation scores were also signifi cantly lower. Recovery times were found to be shorter in group D as compared to group F; the same trend was observed for the supplemental opioid requirement. During the postoperative period, there was no shivering, nausea or vomiting in group D, but in group F, 3 patients complained of shivering, and 2 patients experienced nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: In our study, we found that dexmedetomidine controlled the hemodynamic changes better than fentanyl perioperatively, after extubation and during the early postoperative period. Our results suggest that that dexmedetomidine is safer and more eff ective in controlling hemodynamic changes during surgical stimulation than the standard agents used in neuroanesthesia.