Dexmedetomidine in anaesthesia

@article{Paris2005DexmedetomidineIA,
  title={Dexmedetomidine in anaesthesia},
  author={Andrea Paris and Peter H. Tonner},
  journal={Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={18},
  pages={412–418}
}
Purpose of review The development of dexmedetomidine, a potent and highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has created new interest in the use of α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and has led to its evaluation in various yet non-approved perioperative settings. The current review focuses on the usefulness of dexmedetomidine in anaesthesia practice. Recent findings Recently acquired knowledge and experience with dexmedetomidine in perioperative use will be presented and discussed in the context of… 
Dexmedetomidine: current role in anesthesia and intensive care.
TLDR
Although its wide use is currently in patients of surgical and non-surgical intensive care units, dexmedetomidine seems to have promising future applications in neuroprotection, cardioprotection and renoprotection.
Dexmedetomidine: clinical application as an adjunct for intravenous regional anesthesia.
TLDR
What is currently known about the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine when coadministered with local anesthetics in patients undergoing intravenous regional anesthesia is examined to improve understanding of the properties and application.
Review Article: Dexmedetomidine: Does it Have Potential in Palliative Medicine?
  • E. Prommer
  • Medicine
    The American journal of hospice & palliative care
  • 2011
Dexmedetomidine, is a α 2 adrenergic agonist approved by the Food and Drug administration for sedation and analgesia. A highly potent α2 adrenergic agonist, it has quick onset of action, with peak
[The use of dexmedetomidine in neurosurgery.].
TLDR
The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of dexmedetomidine favors its use in several neurosurgical procedures, and the use in functional surgical interventions is promising.
Dexmedetomidine and clonidine in epidural anaesthesia: A comparative evaluation
Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Aims and objectives are to compare the efficacy and clinical profile of two α-2 adrenergic agonists, dexmedetomidine
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine
TLDR
The pharmacokinetic profile can be adequately described by a two-compartment model in population pharmacokinetics modeling and provides a reference for individualizing the dose of dexmedetomidine and achieving the desired pharmacological effects in clinical applications.
Dexmedetomidine in current anaesthesia practice- a review.
  • S. Naaz, E. Ozair
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
  • 2014
TLDR
Dexmedetomidine is an alpha 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, even ten times more selective than clonidine, that is analgesic, has anaesthetic sparing effect, sympatholytic property, useful in other procedural sedation and also has cardiovascular stabilizing property.
Use of dexmedetomidine in pediatric cardiac anesthesia
TLDR
Due to a favorable mix of beneficial physiologic actions and a limited adverse effect profile, DEX is established in the perioperative pediatric cardiac surgery setting, however, evidence from high-quality randomized controlled trials on the effects of supplemental DEX on meaningful patient outcomes is scarce.
Dexmedetomidine combined with midazolam vs. dexmedetomidine alone for sedation during spinal anesthesia
TLDR
Midazolam bolus and dexmedetomidine continuous infusion (the regimen of group MD) may be an additional sedation method for patients who have severe bradycardia.
Hemodynamic and anesthetic advantages of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-agonist, for surgery in prone position.
TLDR
Dex decreased pressure response to intubation, and anesthetic and analgesic requirements, shortened recovery times, and decreased postoperative pain level, suggesting it may be an alternative to currently used adjunctive anesthetic agents in lumbar discectomy operations.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 113 REFERENCES
Dexmedetomidine and Opioid Interactions: Defining the Role of Dexmedetomidine for Intensive Care Unit Sedation
COMPANION articles in this issue of ANESTHESIOLOGY deal with the pharmacology of dexmedetomidine in humans and compare its sedative, ventilatory, and analgesic properties to those of the potent
Dexmedetomidine as a total intravenous anesthetic agent.
TLDR
This report describes three patients who presented for surgery with potential airway management challenges and dexmedetomidine was administered to these patients in increasing doses until general anesthesia was attained.
Comparative Analgesic and Mental Effects of Increasing Plasma Concentrations of Dexmedetomidine and Alfentanil in Humans
TLDR
It is shown that systemic dexmedetomidine lacks analgesic efficacy for heat and electrical pain at doses causing mild to severe sedation at doses not rendering humans unconscious, and this results provide further evidence suggesting that systemic administration of dexmedetsimidine lacks broad analgesic activity in models of acute pain.
Dexmedetomidine Pharmacodynamics: Part II: Crossover Comparison of the Analgesic Effect of Dexmedetomidine and Remifentanil in Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
Compared to baseline, dexmedetomidine is not as effective an analgesic as the opioid remifentanil, and the difference in the quality of the analgesia with remifENTanil may be a reflection of a different mechanism of action or a consequence of the sedative effect of dexmedETomidine.
Preliminary UK experience of dexmedetomidine, a novel agent for postoperative sedation in the intensive care unit
TLDR
In conclusion, dexmedetomidine is a useful agent for the provision of postoperative analgesia and sedation in patients requiring intensive care and could be predicted from the known properties of alpha‐2 agonists.
Clonidine - a potent analgesic adjuvant
TLDR
It is no doubt that clonidine improves analgesia after systemic, spinal or peripheral opioids, and prolongs the analgesic action of most local anaesthetics, and should be considered an experimental drug, but a useful addendum to the pharmacological armamentarium.
Dexmedetomidine Overdose in the Perioperative Setting
TLDR
While the patients reported here were hemodynamically stable, dexmedetomidine may engender significant hemodynamic changes either because of sympatholysis at normal doses or vasoconstriction at higher than recommended doses, which suggests that dexmedETomidine-induced hypertension may be multifactorial, not simply related to plasma drug concentrations.
Effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in humans. I. Sedation, ventilation, and metabolic rate.
TLDR
Overall, across all the DMED doses, the slope was decreased (P < .05) at all times after DMED, and the placebo group showed a progressive increase in the HVR slope.
Dexmedetomidine Pharmacodynamics: Part I: Crossover Comparison of the Respiratory Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Remifentanil in Healthy Volunteers
TLDR
Compared with remifentanil, dexmedetomidine infusions did not result in clinically significant respiratory depression, decreased rather than increased the apnea/hypopnea index, and exhibited some similarity with natural sleep.
Effects of dexmedetomidine on isoflurane requirements in healthy volunteers. 1: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions.
TLDR
It is concluded that dexmedetomidine decreased isoflurane requirements in a dose-dependent manner and reduced heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressures.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...