INTRODUCTION The histology and staging of bronchial carcinoma determines the treatment options for the condition. Endobronchial ultrasound allows the needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes or pulmonary neoplasia where there is tracheo-bronchial contact under visual control. This procedure is aid for diagnosis and for mediastinal staging. French pulmonary departments have been slow to introduce this technique compared to other countries. METHODS All Endobronchial ultrasound procedures performed during 2007 were retrospectively analysed in two pulmonary centres. The indications, practice management, complications, and diagnostic yield were reported. RESULTS 103 Endobronchial ultrasound procedures were performed, in the majority under local anaesthesia in out-patients. Real time needle aspiration was performed only in 92 patients. Only 11 procedures were performed for mediastinal staging prior to thoracic surgery. 12.6% of patients had minor complications. 136 lymph node stations were sampled in 92 patients, but only 97 (70.3%) in 63 patients were judged to be 'satisfactory"(malignant cells and/or lymphocytes on cytology results). CONCLUSIONS It is difficult to rapidly reach the diagnostic yield reported in literature. We think that appropriate training in the technique is of great importance.