Developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its forms.

@article{Charles2001DevelopmentalTS,
  title={Developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its forms.},
  author={J. Charles and T. Hanley and R. Wilson and B. van Ravenzwaay and J. Bus},
  journal={Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology},
  year={2001},
  volume={60 1},
  pages={
          121-31
        }
}
  • J. Charles, T. Hanley, +2 authors J. Bus
  • Published 2001
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
The potential for 2,4-D and its salts and esters to induce developmental toxicity was investigated in rats (8 studies) and rabbits (7 studies). Maternal toxicity associated with exposure was dependent on the dose level expressed as 2,4-D acid equivalents. The severity of the maternal effect was correlated to the 2,4-D acid-equivalent dose, with increasing dose levels that exceeded renal clearance causing increasingly more severe maternal effects. In both species, maternal body weight effects… Expand
Effects of oral administration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats
TLDR
The results suggest that a subacute treatment of 2,4-D promotes reproductive system toxicity, and this herbicide is used worldwide in agriculture as a selective herbicide. Expand
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid effects on nephrotoxicity in rats during late pregnancy and early postnatal periods.
TLDR
Exposure to 2,4-D induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of suckling pups and their mothers is investigated. Expand
Fetotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats and the protective role of vitamin E
TLDR
2,4-D induced oxidative stress in the liver of mothers and fetuses which was indicated by a significant elevation of malondialdehyde level with reduction in catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity, andoadministration of vitamin E can counteract the deleterious effects of 2, 4-D by successive reduction in the oxidative stress. Expand
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induced hepatic and renal toxicological perturbations in rat model: Attenuation by selenium supplementation
TLDR
The results suggest that 2,4-D induced hepatic and renal toxicities were attenuated by Se supplementation probably owing to its antioxidant properties. Expand
Hepatotoxicity induced by sub-acute exposure of rats to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid based herbicide "Désormone lourd".
TLDR
It is suggested that 2,4-D induces hepatoxicity and cellular alterations in rat liver, and there were effects on the activity of the serum enzyme markers, on TSP, Alb and the glycemia levels. Expand
Lack of effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid administration on markers of oxidative stress during early pregnancy in mice.
TLDR
2,4-D does not seem to induce oxidative stress during early pregnancy in mice at the doses administered, indicating that this mechanism is probably not involved in mediating herbicide toxicity at these dose levels. Expand
Assessing eco-toxicological effects of industrial 2,4-D acid iso-octylester herbicide on rat pancreas and liver
TLDR
It is found that 2,4-D acid iso-octylester caused the formation of atypical cell foci (ACF) in the pancreata and livers of rats, indicating that this herbicide potentially is a cancer initiator. Expand
EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO 2, 4-DICHLOROPHENOYACETIC ACID ON EMBRYOTOXICITY AND FETOTOXICITY IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS
2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a plant growth regulator, has been used worldwide as an herbicide. It has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects from embryotoxicity andExpand
EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECT OF 2,4-D (2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID) ON FERTILITY AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF ALBINO RATS Research Article
TLDR
There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes and sex accessories, and reduction in sperm counts both in epididymis and testes in treated animals. Expand
Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the ventral prostate of rats during the peri-pubertal, pubertal and adult stage
TLDR
Results of this study showed that 2,4-D exposure during gestation and until adulthood altered development of the prostate gland in male rats, delaying it at early ages while increasing its size in adults, indicate that 1,3-D could behave as endocrine disruptors (EDs). Expand
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References

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Abstract The single-dose oral LD50 values in Fischer 344 rats for technical-grade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), esters, and salts ranged from 553 mg/kg (isobutyl ester in females) to 1090Expand
Single-dose and chronic dietary neurotoxicity screening studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats.
TLDR
The findings of these studies indicated a mild, transient locomotor effect from high-level acute exposure, and retinal degeneration in female rats fromhigh-level chronic exposure in 2,4-D. Expand
Comparative Subchronic and Chronic Dietary Toxicity Studies on 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Amine, and Ester in the Dog
Forms of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are herbicides used in the control of a wide variety of broadleaf and woody plants. Subchronic toxicity studies in dogs were conducted on three formsExpand
Comparative subchronic studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine, and ester in rats.
TLDR
Data demonstrated the comparable toxicities of 2,4-D acid, DMA, and 2-EHE and support a subchronic no-observed-effect level of 15 mg/kg/day for all three forms. Expand
Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid in rodents.
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 1998
TLDR
The findings of these studies indicate low chronic toxicity of 2,4-DB and the lack of oncogenic response to 2, 4-DB following chronic dietary exposure of 2-4- DB in the rat and mouse. Expand
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TLDR
It is indicated that overt maternal toxicity as defined by weight loss or mortality is not always associated with the same defined syndrome of adverse developmental effects in the rat. Expand
Distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in maternal and fetal rabbits.
TLDR
Fetal brain AUCs were 10% or less of the fetal plasma A UCs, indicating the brain barrier system to 2,4-D is functioning in the late-gestation fetal rabbit, however, its development may not be complete due to the higher brain tissue to plasma ratios in the fetus compared to the dam. Expand
Distribution and Elimination of Chlorinated Phenoxyacetic Acids in Animals
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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TLDR
The distribution and elimination of two phenoxyacetic acids were studied with a chemical method in rats, pigs, calves and chickens and an increased elimination rate was observed after repeated administration, the major excretory route seemed to be via the kidneys in all species studied. Expand
The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and esters of 2,4-D on rat embryonal, foetal and neonatal growth and development.
TLDR
Signs of embryotoxicity and foetotoxicity, such as decreased foetal body weight, subcutaneous oedema, delayed ossification of bone, lumbar ribs and wavy ribs were observed at high doses; considered overall, the responses were dose-related. Expand
Evaluation of the genotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its derivatives in mammalian cell cultures.
TLDR
The genetic toxicity of an ester and two salts of 2,4-D isopropylamine and triisopropanolamine was investigated in cultured mammalian cells and results were consistent with the general lack of genotoxic potential for 2, 4-D in a number of other test systems. Expand
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