Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.


Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.139