Developmental plasticity of HPA and fear responses in rats: A critical review of the maternal mediation hypothesis

  title={Developmental plasticity of HPA and fear responses in rats: A critical review of the maternal mediation hypothesis},
  author={Simone Macr{\`i} and Hanno W{\"u}rbel},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},

Maternal touch and feed as critical regulators of behavioral and stress responses in the offspring.

  • C. Walker
  • Biology, Psychology
    Developmental psychobiology
  • 2010
It is found that maternal licking of the pups reduced stress responsiveness and inflammation in pups subjected to modest repeated pain during the first weeks of life and that it also blunted adult sensitivity to thermal pain.

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner and decrease the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders.

Neonatal Novelty-Induced Persistent Enhancement in Offspring Spatial Memory and the Modulatory Role of Maternal Self-Stress Regulation

It is indicated that maternal and nonmaternal postnatal environments exert separate but interacting influences on offspring cognitive development and support a maternal modulation model of cognitive development that considers maternal self-stress regulation as an important factor among the multitude of maternal influences.

Resilience and vulnerability are dose-dependently related to neonatal stressors in mice

Prenatal and Maternal Psychosocial Stress in Primates: Adaptive Plasticity or Vulnerability to Pathology?

In many species of vertebrates, prenatal and early postnatal stress can have long-lasting consequences for neuroanatomical, neuroendocrine, or behavioral development. In primates including humans,

Beyond maternal absence: evidence for the role of peers and non-shared stressful experience in mediating the development of a fearful phenotype

An adult fearful phenotype linked to amygdala priming develops if individual pups are repeatedly isolated from peers in a novel environment, while away from the dam, highlighting the role of non-shared stressful experiences of the pups in the programming fearfulness rather than maternal absence per se.



Dissociation in the effects of neonatal maternal separations on maternal care and the offspring's HPA and fear responses in rats

Dissociation in the effects of EH and MS on maternal care and on the stress and fear responses in the offspring is demonstrated, indicating that maternal care cannot be the sole mediator of these effects.

Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates.

Results from both experiments demonstrate that stress inoculation, rather than high levels of maternal care, promotes the development of primate stress resistance.

Peripubertal environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal care on hippocampal development and glutamate receptor subunit expression

Findings suggest that environmental enrichment reverses the effects of reduced maternal care through the same genomic target, the NR2B gene, and possibly effects on other subunits of the NMDA and AMPA receptors.

Epigenetic Programming of Stress Responses through Variations in Maternal Care

Sustained “maternal effects” appear elsewhere in biology, including plants, insects, and lizards, and may have evolved to program advantages in the environments that the offspring will likely face as adults.

Early life experience alters response of adult neurogenesis to stress

The results suggest that early adverse experience inhibits structural plasticity via hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids and diminishes the ability of the hippocampus to respond to stress in adulthood.

The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: Implications for psychopathology

An overview of the corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) system and its role as a mediator in the development of the stress response, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder is presented.

Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations.

  • M. Meaney
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2001
Evidence is provided for the importance of parental care as a mediator of the effects of environmental adversity on neural development and patterns of maternal care that increase stress reactivity in offspring are enhanced by stressors imposed on the mother.