Developmental pathways to bipolarity: are juvenile-onset depressions pre-bipolar?

@article{Akiskal1995DevelopmentalPT,
  title={Developmental pathways to bipolarity: are juvenile-onset depressions pre-bipolar?},
  author={Hagop Souren Akiskal},
  journal={Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry},
  year={1995},
  volume={34 6},
  pages={
          754-63
        }
}
This article approaches the question of bipolarity in childhood and adolescence from an "adult" perspective. It argues that clinically ascertained juvenile depressions--with onsets typically in late childhood or early adolescence--have affinity to bipolar spectrum disorders based on (1) early age at onset; (2) even gender ratio; (3) prominence of irritability, labile moods, and explosive anger indicative of mixed episodes; (4) high rates of "comorbid" substance abuse; (5) questionable response… CONTINUE READING
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