Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiciaceae)

  title={Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiciaceae)},
  author={Sandra K. Floyd and William E. Friedman},
  journal={Plant Systematics and Evolution},
Abstract. Because of their basal phylogenetic position, Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Illiciales (and allies) are key to reconstructing ancestral character states and to tracing character state transitions that occurred during the earliest radiation of flowering plants. Endosperm is the sexually-derived embryo-nourishing tissue that is unique to the life cycle of angiosperms. We provide detailed descriptions of endosperm development in Amborella, Nuphar (Nymphaeales), and Illicium (Illiciales… 

The four-celled female gametophyte of Illicium (Illiciaceae; Austrobaileyales): implications for understanding the origin and early evolution of monocots, eumagnoliids,and eudicots.

A character analysis based on more than 250 embryological studies indicates that a transition from an ancestrally four-celled/four-nucleate Illicium-like female gametophyte to a seven-CElled/eight-n nucleate female gamETophyte occurred in the common ancestor of the sister group to Austrobaileyales.

Endosperm development in the Araceae (Alismatales) and evolution of developmental modes in monocots

An extensive comparison with other monocots in light of phylogenetic relationships demonstrates that a plesiomorphic cellular endosperm development is restricted to the three basal monocot orders Acorales, Alismatales, and Petrosaviales, in which evolutionary changes from cellular to nuclear endOSperm development occurred twice as major events.

Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and the evolutionary developmental origins of the angiosperm progamic phase.

New data from Amborella and a review of fertilization biology of other early-divergent angiosperms show that an evolutionary transition from slow reproduction to rapid reproduction occurred early in angiosperm history.

Reproductive morphology of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), a member of basal angiosperms

The reproductive morphological characters of Nuphar are compared with those of other nymphaeaceous genera and the micropyle structure is variable in various stages of ovule development.

Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in Nymphaeales: integrating genes, genomes and morphology

The crown group of extant Nymphaeales is supported by a series of synapomorphies, several of which have evolved in line with the acquisition of herbaceous habits and adaptations to an aquatic lifestyle such as the loss of cambium and sclerenchyma.

Floral biology and ovule and seed ontogeny of Nymphaea thermarum, a water lily at the brink of extinction with potential as a model system for basal angiosperms.

Early male and female function indicate that N. thermarum is predisposed towards self-pollination, a phenomenon that is likely to have evolved multiple times within Nymphaea, making it uniquely promising as an early-diverging angiosperm model system for genetic and molecular studies.

Reconstructing the ancestral female gametophyte of angiosperms: Insights from Amborella and other ancient lineages of flowering plants.

It is hypothesize that a peramorphic increase in egg apparatus cell number took place and led to the unique situation in which there are three synergids in Amborella trichopoda.

Seed fertilization, development, and germination in Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales): Implications for endosperm evolution in early angiosperms.

New data on endosperm development in the early-divergent angiosperm Trithuria (Hydatellaceae) indicate that double fertilization results in formation of cellularized micropylar and unicellular

Prolonged embryogenesis in Austrobaileya scandens (Austrobaileyaceae): its ecological and evolutionary significance.

Although Austrobaileya seeds are nearly 50 times larger (by length) than the smallest seeds of extinct and extant members of early divergent angiosperm lineages, the embryo to seed ratio falls squarely within the narrow range that characterizes the albuminous seeds of ancient flowering plant lineages.