Developmental biology: Neither fat nor flesh

  title={Developmental biology: Neither fat nor flesh},
  author={Barbara Cannon and Jan Nedergaard},
In mammals, white adipose tissue stores fat, whereas brown adipose tissue burns fat. Brown adipocytes have a common origin with muscle cells, which could help explain their unusual function. 
Cell biology: Neither brown nor white
The identification of a third type of fat cell in mice and humans might open up new avenues for combating obesity.
Regulatory Factors that Reveal Three Distinct Adipocytes : The Brown, the White and the Brite
A large number of adipose tissues have long been considered to derive from a common origin, and even the functionally different brown and white adipose tissue were generalized to share a commonorigin.
Adipose Tissue Development, Structure and Function
Adipose tissue stores excess fuel in the form of triglycerides and relinquishes these reserves during periods of nutritional deprivation, and actively controls energy homeostasis.
Adipose tissue development--impact of the early life environment.
A greater understanding of the mechanisms by which early life events regulate adipose tissue distribution in young offspring are likely to provide important insights for novel interventions that may prevent excess adiposity in later life.
PRDM16: the interconvertible adipo-myocyte switch.
A recent study shows that overexpression of the transcriptional regulator positive regulatory domain containing 16 (PRDM16) determines the development of brown adipocytes from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers.
Thermogenic brown adipocytes as new targets for the treatment of obesity in humans
New possibilities to fight human obesity by stimulating energy dissipation via activation of the recently discovered brown fat depots or of the muscle CD34 progenitor cells are suggested.
Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review
It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that causes adiposes tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders.
Developmental Origins of the Adipocyte Lineage: New Insights from Genetics and Genomics Studies
It is suggested that the adipose tissue is composed of distinct mini-organs, exhibiting developmental and functional differences, as well as variable contribution to obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Brown adipose tissue: development, metabolism and beyond.
The present review integrates the recent advancements on the regulation of brown fat formation and activity by developmental and hormonal signals in relation to its metabolic function to suggest a potential target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Physiological process of fat loss
The human body can act as a fat-burning machine by depending on low-calorie foods instead of high-Calorie foods in addition to doing regular exercise, avoiding toxins and processed food, and applying any fat flush dietary program under the approval of a professional doctor.


New role of bone morphogenetic protein 7 in brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure
It is demonstrated that whereas some members of the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) support white adipocyte differentiation, BMP7 singularly promotes differentiation of brown preadipocytes even in the absence of the normally required hormonal induction cocktail.
PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch
It is shown by in vivo fate mapping that brown, but not white, fat cells arise from precursors that express Myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage.
Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans.
It is concluded that a substantial fraction of adult humans possess active brown adipose tissue that thus has the potential to be of metabolic significance for normal human physiology as well as to become pharmaceutically activated in efforts to combat obesity.
Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages
The interlinkage between the myocyte and the brown preadipocyte confirms the distinct origin for brown versus white adipose tissue and also represents a plausible explanation as to why brown adipocytes ultimately specialize in lipid catabolism rather than storage, much like oxidative skeletal muscle tissue.
Muscle deficiency and neonatal death in mice with a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene
To test Myogenin's role in vivo, mice homozygous for a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene were generated and these mice survive fetal development but die immediately after birth and show a severe reduction of all skeletal muscle.
Beta-catenin activation is necessary and sufficient to specify the dorsal dermal fate in the mouse.
It is shown by genetic fate mapping in the mouse that En1-expressing cells of the central dermomyotome give rise to dorsal dermis and epaxial muscle and, unexpectedly, to interscapular brown fat.
Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16.
It is shown here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells, indicating that PRDM 16 can control the determination of brown fat fate.
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