Developmental bias in the evolution of phalanges.

  title={Developmental bias in the evolution of phalanges.},
  author={Kathryn D. Kavanagh and Oren Shoval and Benjamin Britton Winslow and Uri Alon and Brian P Leary and Akinori Kan and Clifford J Tabin},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={110 45},
Evolutionary theory has long argued that the entrenched rules of development constrain the range of variations in a given form, but few empirical examples are known. Here we provide evidence for a very deeply conserved skeletal module constraining the morphology of the phalanges within a digit. We measured the sizes of phalanges within populations of two bird species and found that successive phalanges within a digit exhibit predictable relative proportions, whether those phalanges are nearly… CONTINUE READING
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