Developmental Milestones During the First Three Years as Precursors of Adult Intelligence

  title={Developmental Milestones During the First Three Years as Precursors of Adult Intelligence},
  author={Trine Flensborg-Madsen and Erik Lykke Mortensen},
  journal={Developmental Psychology},
Few studies have investigated associations of milestone development in early childhood with intelligence in adulthood in typically developing children. The current study is an extension of 2 previous studies on smaller samples and investigated associations of age at attainment of 32 developmental milestones attained between 0 and 3 years of age with adult intelligence and explored whether the effects of early infant milestones are mediated through later development during subsequent years… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Language development and intelligence in midlife

Evidence is provided that individual differences in language development during the first years of life are associated with intelligence in midlife, with strongest associations found for 'Naming objects/animals in pictures', 'Forming a sentence', and 'Sharing experiences'.

A potential link between early language developmental milestones and personality traits in adulthood

Background: Although plausible links between language development and personality have been suggested, longitudinal studies of these associations into adulthood have not been conducted. Aim: To

Early life predictors of intelligence in young adulthood and middle age

Besides social status and sex, the strongest and most consistent early predictors of adult intelligence were physical or behavioural characteristics that to some extent reflect brain–and cognitive development.

Predictors of early life milestones: Results from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

Evidence of developmental continuity is provided as the main predictor of milestones in the second and third years was the speed of development during the first year, and several pre- and postnatal factors were significantly associated with the timing of milestone attainment.

Predictive validity of developmental milestones for detecting limited intellectual functioning

Nine developmental milestones found to have a significant adjusted (for socio-economic status and prematurity) DOR > 1 and a significant LR+ > 10 have substantial predictive validity for limited intellectual functioning.

Systematic mapping of developmental milestones in wild chimpanzees.

This pattern of milestone emergence is broadly comparable to observations in humans, suggesting selection for a prolonged infantile phase and that sustained skills development has a deep evolutionary history, with implications for theories on primate brain development.

Early Motor Trajectories Predict Motor but not Cognitive Function in Preterm- and Term-Born Adults without Pre-existing Neurological Conditions

Both motor and cognitive function should be assessed in routine follow-up during childhood, as motor problems in childhood were homotypically associated with poorer motor competence in adulthood and early cognitive problems were homolithic associated with adult cognitive outcomes.

Longitudinal changes in cortical responses to letter-speech sound stimuli in 8–11 year-old children

While children are able to name letters fairly quickly, the automatisation of letter-speech sound mappings continues over the first years of reading development. In the current longitudinal fMRI



Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence: A 34-year follow-up.

Associations of Early Developmental Milestones With Adult Intelligence.

Later attainment of a number of milestones was associated with lower adult IQ with the strongest associations found for those related to language and social interaction.

Gross Motor Milestones and Subsequent Development

Evidence is provided that the age of achieving motor milestones may be an important basis for various aspects of later child development and key predictors of later development (eg, perinatal factors) overshadow the predictive role of milestones in infancy.

Infant developmental milestones: a 31-year follow-up.

Those who develop faster during their first year of life tend to attain higher levels of education in adolescence and adulthood, and those who reach infant developmental milestones sooner have significantly better mean scores in teacher ratings.

The relation between age of attainment of motor milestones and future cognitive and motor development in Bangladeshi children.

Age of attainment of walking and standing alone was moderately correlated with the PDI and had significant but low associations with later motor development, but Milestone age of attainment may not be sensitive enough to be used as an indicator of later IQ.

Infant motor development is associated with adult cognitive categorisation in a longitudinal birth cohort study.

Even within the normal range of development, early development in the gross motor domain is associated with better adult executive function (in tests of categorisation), and investigation of the determinants and sequelae of normal neural development will facilitate research into a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders.

The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability.

Infant language development is related to the acquisition of walking.

It is revealed that language development was predicted by multiple factors in the social environment, but only for walking infants, and was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and productive language, independent of age.

Young adult academic outcomes in a longitudinal sample of early identified language impaired and control children.

Early LI rather than speech impairment is clearly associated with continued academic difficulties into adulthood, and results speak to the need for intensive, early intervention for LI youngsters.

Predictors of Intelligence at the Age of 5: Family, Pregnancy and Birth Characteristics, Postnatal Influences, and Postnatal Growth

The results suggest that parental education and maternal IQ are major predictors of IQ and should be included routinely in studies of cognitive development, but their contribution may be of comparatively limited magnitude.