Pomegranate arthropod pests and their management in the Mediterranean area
The life cycle of the carob moth,Spectrobates (= Ectomyelois) ceratoniae (Zeller), was examined on stored almonds held at 26±1°C and 70±5% relative humidity. Oviposition on almonds averaged 113 ± 5.3 eggs per female. Average adult longevity of the female and male was 5.7 (max. = 10) and 4.6 (max. = 9) days, respectively. In experiments in glass jars, 85.5% of the eggs were laid on almonds, and the remainder on filter paper, the wall of the jars, or on petri dishes. Survival of larval and pupal stages was lowest on almonds having cracked shells and highest on chopped almonds. Newly hatched and 15-day-old larvae were not able to penetrate sound in-shell almonds. Mean development time from egg to adult was 45.2 days on chopped almonds, 55.3 on shelled almonds, and 61.6 on almonds having cracked shells. Calculations of the intrinsic rate of natural increase revealed the potential danger of increase inS. ceratoniae populations when they infest stored almonds.