"In vivo" two-photon microscopy (TPLSM) has revealed vital information on neural activity for brain function, even in light of its limitation in imaging events at depths greater than a several hundred micrometers from the brain surface. To break the limit of this penetration depth, we introduced a novel light source based on a semiconductor laser . The light source successfully visualized not only cortex layer V pyramidal neurons spreading to all cortex layers at a superior S/N ratio, but visualize hippocampal CA1 neurons in young adult mice . These results indicate that the penetration depth of this laser was ∼1.4 mm. In vivo TPLSM with a laser emitting a longer wavelength might give us insights on activities of neurons in the cortex or the hippocampus. This deep imaging method could be applicable to other living organs including tumor tissues. In addition, we developed liquid crystal devices to convert linearly polarized beams (LP) to vector beams . A liquid device generated a vector beam called higher-order radially polarized (HRP) beam, which enabled that each of the aggregated 0.17 m beads was distinguished individually, whereas in conventional confocal microscopy or TPLSM they could not. We also visualized the finer structures of networks of filamentous cytoskeleton microtubule fluorescently-labeled in the COS-7, and primary culture of mouse neurons. Moreover, by taking an advantage of the LCDs that can utilize various wavelengths including near-infrared, we could employ an HRP beam for improving TPLSM. An HRP beam visualized fine intracellular structures not only in fixed cells stained with various dyes, but also in living cells expressing a fluorescent protein . HRP beam also visualized finer structures of microtubules in fixed cells. Here, we will discuss these improvements and future application on the basis of our recent data.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i7/DFU087F1F1DFU087F1Fig. 1."in vivo" imaging of living mouse brain (H-line).