Traditional nanostructured metals are inherently comprised of a high density of high-energy interfaces that make this class of materials not stable in extreme conditions. Therefore, high performance bulk nanostructured metals containing stable interfaces are highly desirable for extreme environments applications. Here, we reported an attractive bulk Cu/V nanolamellar composite that was successfully developed by integrating interface engineering and severe plastic deformation techniques. The layered morphology and ordered Cu/V interfaces remained stable with respect to continued rolling (total strain exceeding 12). Most importantly, for layer thickness of 25 nm, this bulk Cu/V nanocomposite simultaneously achieves high strength (hardness of 3.68 GPa) and outstanding thermal stability (up to 700 °C), which are quite difficult to realize simultaneously in traditional nanostructured materials. Such extraordinary property in our Cu/V nanocomposite is achieved via an extreme rolling process that creates extremely high density of stable Cu/V heterophase interfaces and low density of unstable grain boundaries. In addition, high temperature annealing result illustrates that Rayleigh instability is the dominant mechanism driving the onset of thermal instability after exposure to 800 °C.