Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems

  title={Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems},
  author={George Mellor and Tetsuji Yamada},
  journal={Reviews of Geophysics},
Applications of second-moment turbulent closure hypotheses to geophysical fluid problems have developed rapidly since 1973, when genuine predictive skill in coping with the effects of stratification was demonstrated. The purpose here is to synthesize and organize material that has appeared in a number of articles and add new useful material so that a complete (and improved) description of a turbulence model from conception to application is condensed in a single article. It is hoped that this… 

Formulation of the thermal internal boundary layer in a mesoscale model. II. Simulations with a level-2.5 turbulence closure

  • R. ArrittWilliam L. Physick
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 1989
Physick et al. (1989) have discussed some difficulties associated with simulation of the sea-breeze thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), using a numerical model containing a profile exchange


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A simplified second-moment urbulence closure model, which has been reasonably well tested in various geophysical problems, is used to simulate effects of a tall tree canopy on air circulations in the