Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza

@article{Capua2003DevelopmentOA,
  title={Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza},
  author={Ilaria Capua and Calogero Terregino and Giovanni Cattoli and Franco Mutinelli and J. F. Rodr{\'i}guez},
  journal={Avian Pathology},
  year={2003},
  volume={32},
  pages={47 - 55}
}
The present paper reports of the development and validation of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated… 
A Heterologous Neuraminidase Subtype Strategy for the Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) for Avian Influenza Virus Using an Alternative Neuraminidase Inhibition Test
TLDR
Serum NI activity was determined in chickens administered different vaccines containing different H5 and NA subtypes and challenged with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus, indicating the potential use for the heterologous NA-based DIVA strategy in the field.
Novel use of a N2-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA)-based identification of avian influenza.
TLDR
The results suggest that the rgH9N8 vaccine and the companion DIVA test, N2-ELISA, allow the utilization of the DivA strategy for the control of H9N2 LPAI infections in Korea.
Evaluation of different stratagies [sic] for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) in chickens vaccinated with avian influenza oil emulsion vaccines
TLDR
Comparing the two DIVA strategies, the heterologous NA method gave a more consistent response with earlier detection of infection under these experimentalconditions, however, further research is needed to evaluate how this approach works under different field conditions before it can be adopted on a commercial scale.
Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) Using the NS1 Protein of Avian Influenza Virus
TLDR
Because of the variability of seroconversion and the duration of the antibody response in chickens, the NS1 protein DIVA strategy did not perform as well as expected, and if this strategy were to be used, it would require sampling a higher number of birds to compensate for the lower seroconverted rate.
Use of tetanus toxoid as a differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy for sero-surveillance of avian influenza virus vaccination in poultry.
TLDR
TT is a highly suitable exogenous marker for AI vaccination in chickens allowing simple and effective monitoring of AI vaccination status, and immunization with a combined vaccine composed of TT and AI induced high levels of antibodies to both antigens.
Development of DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines utilizing heterologous NA and NS1 protein strategies for the control of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza in turkeys.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the heterologous NA and NS1 DIVA vaccines together with their corresponding serological tests could be useful for the control of TR H3N2 influenza in turkeys.
Generation of reassortant influenza vaccines by reverse genetics that allows utilization of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy for the control of avian influenza.
TLDR
In vaccination-challenge experiments in 2-week-old specific pathogen free chickens, reassortant influenza vaccines demonstrated similar antibody profiles and comparable protection rates as vaccines prepared with parent H5N2 and H7N2 viruses.
Implementation of a “DIVA“ Concept withspecific Elisa Kits; When Subunit H5 Avian Influenza Vaccine is used
The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy using different ELISA tests is possible when a subunit vaccine
Increased resistance of vaccinated turkeys to experimental infection with an H7N3 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus
TLDR
The data presented indicate that heterologous vaccination in the framework of a ‘Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals’ strategy can be a valid tool to support eradication measures in areas with high densities of susceptible animals.
Improvements to the Hemagglutination Inhibition Test for Serological Assessment of Recombinant Fowlpox–H5-Avian-Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Its Use Along with an Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test for Differentiating Infected from Noninfected Vaccinated Animals
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the rFP-H5 vaccine allowed easy serological differentiation of infected from noninfected birds in vaccinated populations of chickens when using standard AGID and HI tests.
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