Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza

@article{Capua2003DevelopmentOA,
  title={Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza},
  author={Ilaria Capua and Calogero Terregino and Giovanni Cattoli and Franco Mutinelli and J. F. Rodr{\'i}guez},
  journal={Avian Pathology},
  year={2003},
  volume={32},
  pages={47 - 55}
}
The present paper reports of the development and validation of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated… 

A Heterologous Neuraminidase Subtype Strategy for the Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) for Avian Influenza Virus Using an Alternative Neuraminidase Inhibition Test

Serum NI activity was determined in chickens administered different vaccines containing different H5 and NA subtypes and challenged with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus, indicating the potential use for the heterologous NA-based DIVA strategy in the field.

Evaluation of different stratagies [sic] for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) in chickens vaccinated with avian influenza oil emulsion vaccines

Comparing the two DIVA strategies, the heterologous NA method gave a more consistent response with earlier detection of infection under these experimentalconditions, however, further research is needed to evaluate how this approach works under different field conditions before it can be adopted on a commercial scale.

Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) Using the NS1 Protein of Avian Influenza Virus

Because of the variability of seroconversion and the duration of the antibody response in chickens, the NS1 protein DIVA strategy did not perform as well as expected, and if this strategy were to be used, it would require sampling a higher number of birds to compensate for the lower seroconverted rate.

Implementation of a “DIVA“ Concept withspecific Elisa Kits; When Subunit H5 Avian Influenza Vaccine is used

The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy using different ELISA tests is possible when a subunit vaccine

Increased resistance of vaccinated turkeys to experimental infection with an H7N3 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus

The data presented indicate that heterologous vaccination in the framework of a ‘Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals’ strategy can be a valid tool to support eradication measures in areas with high densities of susceptible animals.

Analysis of antibody response to an epitope in the haemagglutinin subunit 2 of avian influenza virus H5N1 for differentiation of infected and vaccinated chickens

This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAi H 5N1-vaccinated and -infected chickens.
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