Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza

  title={Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza},
  author={Ilaria Capua and Calogero Terregino and Giovanni Cattoli and Franco Mutinelli and J. F. Rodr{\'i}guez},
  journal={Avian Pathology},
  pages={47 - 55}
The present paper reports of the development and validation of a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry. The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). The possibility of using the heterologous N subtype, to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds, was investigated… 

A Heterologous Neuraminidase Subtype Strategy for the Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) for Avian Influenza Virus Using an Alternative Neuraminidase Inhibition Test

Serum NI activity was determined in chickens administered different vaccines containing different H5 and NA subtypes and challenged with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus, indicating the potential use for the heterologous NA-based DIVA strategy in the field.

Evaluation of different stratagies [sic] for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) in chickens vaccinated with avian influenza oil emulsion vaccines

Comparing the two DIVA strategies, the heterologous NA method gave a more consistent response with earlier detection of infection under these experimentalconditions, however, further research is needed to evaluate how this approach works under different field conditions before it can be adopted on a commercial scale.

Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) Using the NS1 Protein of Avian Influenza Virus

Because of the variability of seroconversion and the duration of the antibody response in chickens, the NS1 protein DIVA strategy did not perform as well as expected, and if this strategy were to be used, it would require sampling a higher number of birds to compensate for the lower seroconverted rate.

Implementation of a “DIVA“ Concept withspecific Elisa Kits; When Subunit H5 Avian Influenza Vaccine is used

The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy using different ELISA tests is possible when a subunit vaccine

Increased resistance of vaccinated turkeys to experimental infection with an H7N3 low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus

The data presented indicate that heterologous vaccination in the framework of a ‘Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals’ strategy can be a valid tool to support eradication measures in areas with high densities of susceptible animals.

Analysis of antibody response to an epitope in the haemagglutinin subunit 2 of avian influenza virus H5N1 for differentiation of infected and vaccinated chickens

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The findings indicate the recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine can be a useful tool in an AI control program by preventing illness and death in chickens and reducing intestinal and respiratory shedding of H5 AIV.

Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

It is demonstrated that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx.

H7N1 avian influenza in Italy (1999 to 2000) in intensively reared chickens and turkeys

Clinical, gross and microscopic lesions caused by LPAI were more severe in turkeys than in chickens, while highly pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) caused similar mortality rates in both species.

Vaccinating chickens against avian influenza with fowlpox recombinants expressing the H7 haemagglutinin.

Although eradication will remain the method of first choice for control of avian influenza, in the circumstances of a continuing and widespread outbreak the availability of vaccines based upon fowlpox recombinants provides an additional method for disease control.

Immunity to Mexican H5N2 avian influenza viruses induced by a fowl pox-H5 recombinant.

It is established that a fowl pox-H5 recombinant can provide protection from lethal Mexican H5N2, and prevent shedding in the feces and transmission to contact birds.

Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses of H9 haemagglutinin subtype

It is likely that the numerous infections of poultry and other birds with H9 subtype influenza viruses during the 1990s originate from separate introductions from feral birds.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI.

Micro neuraminidase-inhibition assay for classification of influenza A virus neuraminidases.

Although the micro-NI assay did not provide the quantitation of the macros, it did prove to be a rapid method for virus classification and antibody studies on influenza A viruses and was suitable for testing sera for the presence of antibodies to the NAs.

Influenza A virus infections in commercial turkeys in north east Italy.

During 1973-1979 a marked increase in respiratory disease was seen in turkeys in the province of Verona in north east Italy. The disease was associated with virus isolations and serological evidence

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