Development of Ventral Stream Representations for Single Letters

@article{Turkeltaub2008DevelopmentOV,
  title={Development of Ventral Stream Representations for Single Letters},
  author={P. Turkeltaub and D. Flowers and Lynn G. Lyon and G. Eden},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2008},
  volume={1145}
}
Visual form recognition is mediated by the ventral extrastriate processing stream. Some regions of ventral stream cortex show preferential activity for specific stimulus categories, but little is known about how this regional specialization develops. Acquisition of letter‐naming skill is of particular interest because letter recognition serves as the gateway to visual processing of words, and fluent letter naming predicts children's reading success. For this reason, we examined the school‐age… Expand
Distinct Neural Specializations for Learning to Read Words and Name Objects
TLDR
It is argued that mid-to-anterior fusiform gyri preferentially process whole items and contribute to learning their spoken form associations, processes that are required for skilled reading, in contrast to parietal cortices, which preferentialially process componential visual–verbal mappings, a process that is crucial for early reading development. Expand
Learning and retrieving holistic and componential visual-verbal associations in reading and object naming
&NA; Understanding the neural processes that underlie learning to read can provide a scientific foundation for literacy education but studying these processes in real‐world contexts remainsExpand
Convergent and Divergent fMRI Responses in Children and Adults to Increasing Language Production Demands
TLDR
While neural organization for naming was largely similar in childhood and adulthood, adults had greater activation in all naming conditions over inferior temporal gyri and superior temporal Gyri/supramarginal gyri. Expand
Age-related differences in the automatic processing of single letters: implications for selective attention
TLDR
The results suggest that unlike their younger counterparts, older adults automatically process stimuli as letters early in the selection process, when it would be more efficient to attend to color only. Expand
Wernicke’s area revisited: Parallel streams and word processing
TLDR
Auditory word-form recognition was originally proposed by Wernicke to occur within left superior temporal gyrus (STG), later further specified to be in posterior STG, and may be better construed as two cortical modules, an auditory word- form area (AWFA) in the auditory ventral stream and an "inner speech area" inThe auditory dorsal stream. Expand
The joint development of hemispheric lateralization for words and faces.
TLDR
The present study examines the hemispheric superiority for faces and words in children, young adolescents and adults in a discrimination task in which stimuli are presented briefly in either hemifield and finds that word lateralization, which emerges earlier, may drive later face lateralization. Expand
Decoding levels of representation in reading: A representational similarity approach
TLDR
An interactive activation theory of visual word processing in which both the lvOT and lAG are neural loci of an orthographic level of representations is suggested. Expand
Relative laterality of the N170 to single letter stimuli is predicted by a concurrent neural index of implicit processing of letternames
TLDR
It is suggested that early neural specialization for orthographic stimuli extends to the case of single letters and, further, that automatic mappings between visual symbols and phonological codes can account for at least some portion of the relative left-lateralization of early neurophysiological responses to printed text. Expand
Learning to see words.
TLDR
This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences, because such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. Expand
Phoneme and word recognition in the auditory ventral stream
TLDR
Left mid- to anterior STG is reliably implicated in the invariant representation of phonetic forms and that this area also responds preferentially to phonetic sounds, above artificial control sounds or environmental sounds, which shows increasing encoding specificity and invariance along the auditory ventral stream for temporally complex speech sounds. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 56 REFERENCES
Attention to single letters activates left extrastriate cortex
TLDR
The results demonstrate that while minimizing activity related to word-level lexical properties, cortical responses to letter recognition can be isolated from figural and color characteristics of simple stimuli. Expand
Shared and dissociated cortical regions for object and letter processing.
TLDR
Equal recruitment of left fusiform and inferior frontal regions by objects and letters reflects similar demands on cognitive processing by these two categories and argues against category-specific modules in these regions. Expand
fMRI correlates of cortical specialization and generalization for letter processing
TLDR
C cortical specialization for letters emerged in the naming task in some peri-sylvian language related cortices, but not in occipito-temporal cortex, indicating that these regions do not process letters in a mandatory fashion, but are instead modulated by the linguistic nature of the task. Expand
The myth of the visual word form area
TLDR
There is no evidence thatvisual word form representations are subtended by a single patch of neuronal cortex and it is misleading to label the left midfusiform region as the visual word form area, according to functional imaging studies. Expand
Distributed representation of objects in the human ventral visual pathway.
TLDR
It is proposed that the functional architecture of the ventral visual pathway is not a mosaic of category-specific modules but instead is a continuous representation of information about object form that has a highly consistent and orderly topological arrangement. Expand
Letter processing in the visual system: Different activation patterns for single letters and strings
TLDR
The results suggest that reading experience fine-tunes visual representations at different levels of processing, and that the processing of nonpronounceable letter strings cannot be assumed to be equivalent to single-letter perception. Expand
The visual word form area: spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients.
TLDR
The findings provide direct support for the main components of the classical model of reading and help specify their timing and cerebral substrates. Expand
Visual presentation of single letters activates a premotor area involved in writing
TLDR
It is established that the visual presentation of letters activated a part of the left premotor cortex (BA6) that was also activated when the letters were being written by the subjects, which indicates that the writing motor processes are implicitly evoked when passively observing letters. Expand
Distinct unimodal and multimodal regions for word processing in the left temporal cortex
TLDR
The results clarify the organization of visual and auditory word-processing streams and suggest a possible homolog of the VWFA in the auditory stream, the auditory word form area, located in the left anterior superior temporal sulcus. Expand
The Fusiform Face Area is Part of a Network that Processes Faces at the Individual Level
TLDR
It is suggested that face- selective areas may be involved in the perception of faces at the individual level, whereas letter-selective regions may be tuning themselves to font information in order to recognize letters more efficiently. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...