Development of Dermal Lip Protuberances for Aquatic Surface Respiration in South American Characid Fishes

@inproceedings{Winemiller2004DevelopmentOD,
  title={Development of Dermal Lip Protuberances for Aquatic Surface Respiration in South American Characid Fishes},
  author={Kirk O. Winemiller},
  year={2004}
}
Thirteen characid and one gasteropelecid fish species from a seasonal swampcreek of the Venezuelan llanos exhibited dermal protuberances of the lower lip during periods of extreme oxygen depletion. Relative frequencies of protuberances showed large interspecific variation and were independent of fish size within species. Protuberances appeared in three basic forms, the most elaborate of which occurred in two Triportheus species. Protuberances only were present in specimens taken from waters… CONTINUE READING
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