The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure both the positive and negative aspects of communion and agency, and to examine relationships among subscales. First, 264 undergraduates, both men and women, rated themselves on 40 items, and CAS (Communion-Agency Scale) was constructed, which consisted of four subscales with 6 items each. Second, 472 undergraduates, 303 women and 169 men, completed the scale, and were assigned, according to their scores on positive communion and agency, to one of four gender types: androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated. Analyses of variance for negative communion and agency, with gender types (positive communion and agency) as independent variables, were performed. Factor analysis was also performed on the data. Results indicated that higher positive communion was associated with less negative agency, and higher positive agency with less negative communion. We discussed merits of measuring positive as well as negative aspects of communion and agency.