Development of Building Automation and Control Systems

Abstract

h THE BUILDING STOCK in the United States accounts for 39% of total energy consumption and 68% of electricity consumption. Limits on carbon emissions are driving new regulations that will require buildings to be energy efficient according to standards that are likely to be more stringent than the ASHRAE 90.1. The design of low energy green buildingsVzero energy in the ideal caseVis very challenging. There are examples of zero energy buildings today, however, they are the results of ad-hoc designs that are not easy to generalize. The design methodology used today for large buildings is top-down. Different subsystems are designed in isolation by domain experts following design documents flown down after the bid process. This methodology is not suitable for low energy buildings that require interaction among architects, mechanical engineers and control engineers. Consider for instance adopting low energy solutions such as natural ventilation and active facade. In this case, architectural design (e.g., building orientation), the design of the mechanical equipments of the HVAC system and the design of the control algorithms cannot be done in isolation. In this new context, the design of the building automation system (including the embedded processors, the networks supporting the building operations, and the software running on them) is nontrivial. Control algorithms become multi-input, multi-output, hybrid, and predictive, as opposed to single-input single-output controllers coordinated by simple switching conditions as of today. Moreover, several subsystems such as HVAC, lighting, fire and security, and vertical transportation will interact through the network to allow information sharing. To address these challenges, we propose a design flow for building automation systems that focuses on two main aspectsVheterogeneity and automation. The flow bridges the gap between a desirable design entry pointVat a high abstraction level using modelbased design tools such as Simulink [4] and Modelica [3]Vand the available back-end tools. The flow enables the integration of heterogeneous input models from different high-level languages, allowing the interaction between domain experts. It also automatically optimizes the implementation of the control algorithms on a distributed platform by selecting computation and communication resources, and by performing software synthesis while Editors’ notes: This article addresses the challenge of realizing the building automation and control system using a distributed network of embedded computers. A specification methodology and design space exploration framework are proposed to raise the level of abstraction at which building control systems are designed, to reduce design effort, and to lower implementation cost. VYuvraj Agarwal, University of California, and Anand Raghunathan, Purdue University

DOI: 10.1109/MDT.2012.2201130

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Cite this paper

@article{Yang2012DevelopmentOB, title={Development of Building Automation and Control Systems}, author={Yang Yang and Qi Zhu and Mehdi Maasoumy and Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli}, journal={IEEE Design & Test of Computers}, year={2012}, volume={29}, pages={45-55} }