Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is performed for definitive treatment of chronic pancreatitis; patients are not diabetic before surgery, or have C-peptide positive pancreatogenous diabetes. Thus, TPIAT recipients are not traditionally considered at risk for autoimmune loss of the islet graft. We describe a 43-year-old female who underwent TPIAT with high mass islet graft of 6031 IEQ/kg, with no evidence of presurgical β cell autoimmunity who developed type 1 diabetes within the first year after TPIAT, resulting in complete loss of beta cell function. The patient had positive GAD and insulin autoantibodies at 1 year and 18 months after TPIAT, not present prior, and undetectable C-peptide after mixed meal and intravenous glucose tolerance testing at 18 months. Glucagon secretion was preserved, suggesting the transplanted alpha cell mass was intact. HLA typing revealed a DR3/DR4 class II haplotype. This case highlights the need to consider de novo type 1 diabetes in patients with unexpected islet graft failure after TPIAT.