Development and validation of the counterfactual thinking for negative events scale.

@article{Rye2008DevelopmentAV,
  title={Development and validation of the counterfactual thinking for negative events scale.},
  author={Mark S. Rye and Melissa B Cahoon and Rahan S Ali and Tarika Daftary},
  journal={Journal of personality assessment},
  year={2008},
  volume={90 3},
  pages={261-9}
}
We examined the psychometric properties of the newly created Counterfactual Thinking for Negative Events Scale (CTNES) in two studies involving university undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 634), factor analysis revealed four subscales that correspond with various types of counterfactual thinking: Nonreferent Downward, Other-Referent Upward, Self-Referent Upward, and Nonreferent Upward. The subscales were largely orthogonal and had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The… CONTINUE READING