Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.

  title={Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.},
  author={D. Watson and L. A. Clark and A. Tellegen},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={54 6},
  • D. Watson, L. A. Clark, A. Tellegen
  • Published 1988
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood… CONTINUE READING
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