Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.

  title={Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.},
  author={David Watson and Lee Anna Clark and Auke Tellegen},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={54 6},
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood… 
The Youth Version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: A Psychometric Validation
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the revised Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C; Joiner, Catanzaro & Laurent, 1996) in 228 nonclinical children and
Positive Affect/Negative Affect Scale for Mexicans (PANA-M): Evidences of Validity and Reliability
The affective component of Subjective Well Being refers to the emotional evaluations people make regarding day-to-day life events. These emotional responses can be categorized into two: Positive
Testing Measurement Invariance of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in American and Arab University Students
Affect describes any feelings, emotions, or moods that a person experiences and is generally divided into two broad dimensions—positive affect and negative affect. The most widely used measure of
The Alternate Forms of the Positive and Negative Mood Scales: Reliability, Validity, and Equivalence in Nonreferred Samples
The psychometric characteristics of the positive and negative mood scales of the trait version of the State Trait-Depression Adjective Check Lists (ST-DACL) were studied in three nonreferred age
Factorial and construct validity of the Italian Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS).
  • A. Terracciano, R. McCrae, P. Costa
  • Psychology
    European journal of psychological assessment : official organ of the European Association of Psychological Assessment
  • 2003
This study provides evidence that an Italian version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a reliable and valid self-report measure and offers strong support for the construct validity of the Italian PANAS.
The Development and Validation of an Index of Emotional Disposition and Mood State: The Chinese Affect Scale
A short measure of trait and state negative and positive affect (Chinese Affect Scale) was developed for Chinese-speaking people. From indigenously derived affect markers the characteristic
Validity of the need for affect scales: Factorial structure, invariance and validity in the italian context
Maio and Esses (2001) developed an individual difference measure of the Need for Affect. This construct reflects the individual’s motivation to approach or avoid emotion-inducing situations. In the
Measuring Positive Emotions: an Examination of the Reliability and Structural Validity of Scores on the Seven Dispositional Positive Emotions Scales
The Dispositional Positive Emotions Scales (DPES) are seven separate research scales that measure joy, awe, amusement, pride, contentment, compassion, and love. Despite widespread use of these


The independence of positive and negative affect.
It appears that positive and negative affect are independent in terms of how much people feel in their lives over longer time periods, but researchers need to focus on the processes that underlie both positive andnegative affect and that are responsible for producing their relative independence.
Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders.
Findings in normal samples suggest that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Aflect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) may improve their differentiation, and the results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.
The SCL-90 and the MMPI: A Step in the Validation of a New Self-Report Scale
Comparisons of the nine primary symptom dimensions of the SCL-90 with the set of MMPI scales reflected very high convergent validity for the Scl-90, with secondary patterns of correlations showing high interpretative consistency.
Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states.
A number of apparently diverse personality scales—variously called trait anxiety, neuroticism, ego strength, general maladjustment, repression-sensitization, and social desirability—are reviewed and
Temporal stability and cross-situational consistency of affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses.
The results indicate that the question of whether personality consistency exists does not have a simple answer, and requires knowledge of the persons, situations, responses, and level of analysis involved.
The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory.
The historical evolution, development, rationale and validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist is described, a self-report symptom inventory comprised of 58 items which are representative of the symptom configurations commonly observed among outpatients.
Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people.
A model of individual differences in happiness is presented, and the separate and complementary roles of trait and adaptation-level theories in explaining happiness are discussed.
Intraindividual and interindividual analyses of positive and negative affect: their relation to health complaints, perceived stress, and daily activities.
  • D. Watson
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1988
The most significant finding was that, contrary to prediction, health complaints were as strongly related to intraindividual fluctuations in PA as in NA.
Health complaints, stress, and distress: exploring the central role of negative affectivity.
Results demonstrate the importance of including different types of health measures in health psychology research, and indicate that self-report health measures reflect a pervasive mood disposition of negative affectivity (NA), which will act as a general nuisance factor in health research.