Development and evolution of the pharyngeal apparatus.

@article{Frisdal2014DevelopmentAE,
  title={Development and evolution of the pharyngeal apparatus.},
  author={Aude Frisdal and Paul A Trainor},
  journal={Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Developmental biology},
  year={2014},
  volume={3 6},
  pages={
          403-18
        }
}
The oral or pharyngeal apparatus facilitates the dual functions of respiration and feeding. It develops during embryogenesis from transient structures called pharyngeal arches (PAs), which comprise a reiterated series of outgrowths on the lateral side of the head. The PAs and their segmental arrangement are highly conserved throughout evolution from invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus, through to vertebrate agnathans including avians, squamates, and mammals. The structural organization of… CONTINUE READING
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