PREMISE OF THE STUDY Microsatellite loci were developed to characterize genetic variation and population subdivision in Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea from the Caribbean Islands. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 13 new microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in the two Caribbean heliconias. Di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats were identified with one to 17 alleles per locus, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.87. Additionally, cross-species amplification was successful in eight out of 13 loci. CONCLUSIONS The microsatellite loci developed have discriminatory potential to be used in genetic characterizations of Caribbean Heliconia. Both H. bihai and H. caribaea are known to have adaptive interactions with their hummingbird pollinators, and the characterized microsatellite markers will be used to study mating system, genetic structure, and phylogeographic patterns in Caribbean Heliconia.