UNLABELLED PREMISE OF THE STUDY In Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra), the available simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular breeding research. This study was aimed at developing a large number of polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSRs from the transcriptome of Chinese bayberry. • METHODS AND RESULTS Five hundred ninety-four compound EST-SSRs and 5557 noncompound ones were identified from 41239 unigene sequences generated from the transcriptome of M. rubra cv. Biqi. Using 10 Chinese bayberry cultivars, 109 polymorphic EST-SSRs were screened from 412 selected. In total, they generated 389 alleles, with a polymorphism ratio of 93.8%. In addition, it was observed that the polymorphism levels of compound EST-SSRs were somewhat lower than those of noncompound ones. • CONCLUSIONS The 109 polymorphic EST-SSRs developed from the Chinese bayberry transcriptome should greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies in this as well as other Myricaceae species.