Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

@article{Lemmens2009DevelopmentAV,
  title={Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents},
  author={Jeroen S. Lemmens and Patti M. Valkenburg and Jochen Peter},
  journal={Media Psychology},
  year={2009},
  volume={12},
  pages={77 - 95}
}
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems). The dimensional structure of the scale was investigated in two independent samples of adolescent gamers (N = 352 and N = 369). In both samples, a second-order factor model described our… 
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