Development and Clinical Application of Electroencephalographic Bispectrum Monitoring

@article{Johansen2000DevelopmentAC,
  title={Development and Clinical Application of Electroencephalographic Bispectrum Monitoring},
  author={Jay W. Johansen and Peter s. Sebel},
  journal={Anesthesiology},
  year={2000},
  volume={93},
  pages={1336-1344}
}
Development and Clinical Application of Electroencephalographic Bispectrum Monitoring Jay Johansen;Peter Sebel; Anesthesiology 
Estimation of the anesthetic depth using wavelet analysis of electroencephalogram
  • S. Bibian, T. Zikov, B. MacLeod
  • Medicine
    2001 Conference Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 2001
TLDR
This paper investigates the use of wavelet decomposition of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to assess the hypnotic state of anesthetized patients undergoing surgery and can differentiate clearly between the anesthenized state and the awake "baseline" state.
Electrophysiology and Disorders of Consciousness
TLDR
This paper focuses on standard clinical assessments, event related potentials (ERP) and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), which provide qualitative information on background electrical activity and can spot paroxystic activity and therefore guide treatment.
Can electromyographic arousal be detected visually on the Datex‐Ohmeda S/5TM Anesthesia Monitor?
TLDR
Electroencephalogram (EEG)‐based depth of anaesthesia monitoring is susceptible to contaminating electromyographic (EMG) activity, so anaesthesiologists using these monitors should interpret the raw EEG waveform seen on the anaesthesia monitor.
Effect of aminophylline on bispectral index
Background:  The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aminophylline on BIS as well as clinical recovery in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.
Electrophysiology in Disorders of Consciousness: From Conventional EEG Visual Analysis to Brain-Computer Interfaces
TLDR
This chapter focuses on the state of knowledge regarding the implementation of electroencephalography for diagnosis and prognosis in clinical setting, as well as the current effort for developing more reliable methods for assessing severely brain-injured patients with altered state of consciousness.
The correlation of the Narcotrend Index with endtidal sevoflurane concentrations and hemodynamic parameters in children
Background:  The Narcotrend Index (NI) of anesthetic depth is potentially a pharmacodynamic measure of the effects of sevoflurane on the brain.
Bispectral analysis of the electroencephalogram: a review of its development and use in anesthesia.
TLDR
Evaluating the different methodologies used to monitor anesthetic depth and the principles and potential applications of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in veterinary anesthesia finds dynamic changes in the BIS after a noxious stimulus may signify early nociceptive activation of the cerebral cortex and may be a useful marker of inadequate analgesia.
Computational Aspects of Anesthetic Action in Simple Neural Models
Computational Aspects of Anesthetic Action in Simple Neural Models Allan Gottschalk;Paul Haney; Anesthesiology
Elevated BIS and Entropy values after sugammadex or neostigmine: an electroencephalographic or electromyographic phenomenon?
TLDR
The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‐blind study was to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on the BIS and Entropy values during the reversal of the NMB.
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References

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Bispectrum Analysis of Electroencephalogram Signals during Waking and Sleeping
The degree of interaction of component waves making up a single electroencephalogram trace was strongly correlated with alpha activity, lead placement, and state of consciousness. Significant
The effect of ketamine on clinical endpoints of hypnosis and EEG variables during propofol infusion
TLDR
The effect of variable doses of ketamine on the endpoints of hypnosis and processed EEG variables, e.g., bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and median frequency (MF) during propofol infusion, are studied.
Analysis of the EEG bispectrum, auditory evoked potentials and the EEG power spectrum during repeated transitions from consciousness to unconsciousness.
TLDR
Of the four electrophysiological variables, AEP index was best at distinguishing the transition from unconsciousness to consciousness and all mean values 1 min after recovery of consciousness were demonstrated.
Bispectral Analysis of the Electroencephalogram Predicts Conscious Processing of Information during Propofol Sedation and Hypnosis
TLDR
Bispectral index accurately predicts response to verbal commands during sedation and hypnosis with propofol or prop ofol plus nitrous oxide and provided additional predictive power when combined with treatment history.
Electroencephalographic Bispectral Index Correlates with Intraoperative Recall and Depth of Propofol-Induced Sedation
TLDR
The BIS index appears to be a useful variable for assessing the depth of propofol-induced sedation and amnesia during regional anesthesia as increasing depth of sedation was associated with a significant decrease in intraoperative picture recall.
Electroencephalogram Bispectral Analysis Predicts the Depth of Midazolam‐induced Sedation
TLDR
The bispectral index (BI) appears to be a useful parameter for assessing midazolam‐induced sedation and can predict the likelihood of a patient responding to verbal commands or to shaking of the head during midazlam‐ induced sedation.
Bispectral analysis of the electroencephalogram during induction of anesthesia may predict hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and intubation.
Use of continuous bispectral EEG monitoring to assess depth of sedation in ICU patients
TLDR
Monitoring in 18 randomly selected, deeply sedated, surgical patients in the intensive care unit, who were unresponsive to standard clinical stimulation (Ramsay sedation score), found the bispectral index (BIS) to be the best predictor of depth of anaesthesia during surgical intervention.
Quantitation of the EEG and pharmacodynamic modelling of hypnotic drugs: etomidate as an example.
TLDR
Six volunteers were subjected to an infusion of etomidate designed to generate linearly increasing plasma concentrations with a slope of 0.05 microgram ml-1 min-1, and a different pharmacokinetic behaviour of Etomidate in the venous blood and at the site of drug action is discussed.
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