Developing effective fumigation protocols to manage strongly phosphine-resistant Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

@article{Kaur2015DevelopingEF,
  title={Developing effective fumigation protocols to manage strongly phosphine-resistant Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).},
  author={Ramandeep Kaur and Manoj Kumar Nayak},
  journal={Pest management science},
  year={2015},
  volume={71 9},
  pages={
          1297-302
        }
}
  • R. Kaur, M. Nayak
  • Published 1 September 2015
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Pest management science
BACKGROUND The emergence of high levels of resistance in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) in recent years threatens the sustainability of phosphine, a key fumigant used worldwide to disinfest stored grain. We aimed at developing robust fumigation protocols that could be used in a range of practical situations to control this resistant pest. RESULTS Values of the lethal time to kill 99.9% (LT99 .9 , in days) of mixed-age populations, containing all life stages, of a susceptible and a… 
High Dose Strategies for Managing Phosphine-Resistant Populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).
TLDR
The work reported below aimed to determine the minimum phosphine concentrations and number of days of exposure needed to effectively control all life stages of representative weak and strong resistant strains, and to recommend treatment conditions needed to control strongly phosphine-resistant R. dominica populations.
Co-fumigation with phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride: Potential for managing strongly phosphine-resistant rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens): Presentation
TLDR
It is confirmed that SF and PH3 enhance the efficacy of each other when used in combination, which holds great potential for managing resistant C. ferrugineus.
A co-fumigation strategy utilising reduced rates of phosphine (PH3 ) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) to control strongly resistant rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).
TLDR
It is confirmed that a co-fumigation strategy involving half the current standard rate of PH3 with one-fourth of the current maximal registered rate of SF can provide effective control of strongly PH3 -resistant C. ferrugineus.
Phosphine resistance does not confer cross-resistance to sulfuryl fluoride in four major stored grain insect pests.
TLDR
It is concluded that phosphine resistance does not confer cross-resistance to SF in grain insect pests irrespective of the variation in levels of tolerance to SF itself or resistance to phosphine in their egg and adult stages.
Relative tolerance and expression of resistance to phosphine in life stages of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus
TLDR
Data showed that a proportion of heterozygotes in all life stages, the major carriers of resistance in the field, will survive at very high concentrations, particularly in the egg stage, forming a nucleus for reinfestation or dispersal of resistance.
Synergism Between Phosphine (PH3) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Implications for Managing PH3 Resistance in Rusty Grain Beetle (Laemophloeidae: Coleoptera)
TLDR
Results of the current study provide further opportunities to develop new commercially viable strategy to control strongly PH3-resistant C. ferrugineus and confirmed that CO2 enhances the toxicity of PH3 synergistically in addition to exerting its own toxicity.
Phosphine Resistance in North American Field Populations of the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
TLDR
It is revealed that phosphine resistance in R. dominica is common across North America and some populations have levels of resistance that may pose challenges for continued use of phosphine for their management.
Cryptolestes ferrugineus ( Laemophloeidae : Coleoptera )
Inheritance of resistance to phosphine fumigant was investigated in three field-collected strains of rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Susceptible (S-strain), Weakly Resistant (Weak-R)
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References

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Strong resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): its characterisation, a rapid assay for diagnosis and its distribution in Australia.
TLDR
Resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle is expressed through two identifiable phenotypes: weak and strong, and the development of a rapid assay for diagnosis of resistance enables the provision of same-day advice to expedite resistance management decisions.
Detection and characterisation of strong resistance to phosphine in Brazilian Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae).
TLDR
High level and frequency of resistance in all population samples, some of which had been cultured without selection for up to 12 years, suggest little or no fitness deficit associated with phosphine resistance.
The response of phosphine-resistant lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica and rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae in mixed-age cultures to varying concentrations of phosphine.
TLDR
Application of phosphine in rising concentrations is more effective than in constant or falling concentrations, contrary to the accepted belief that the egg or pupal stage are always more tolerant to phosphine.
Developing strategies to manage highly phosphine resistant populations of flat grain beetles in large bulk storages in Australia
TLDR
An action plan in collaboration with project scientists and the major Australian bulk handling companies aimed at eradicating infestations of phosphine resistant flat grain beetles and preventing their spread and the use of grain protectants and sulfuryl fluoride to eliminate phosphineresistant populations.
Influence of phosphine on hatching of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae).
TLDR
Developmental delay was, however, not evident in susceptible strains of C ferrugineus, L serricorne and O surinamensis that were exposed to phosphine for 24 h.
Effects of time and concentration on mortality of phosphine-resistant Sitophilus oryzae (L) fumigated with phosphine.
TLDR
In fumigations of adults the resistant strains were harder to kill than the susceptible strain, and in mixed-age cultures, which contained the tolerant pupal stage, the difference between susceptible and resistant strains was more pronounced at lower concentrations than higher concentrations.
Response of mixed-age cultures of phosphine-resistant and susceptible strains of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, to phosphine at a range of concentrations and exposure periods
TLDR
Mixed-age cultures, containing all life stages, of a highly resistant strain of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, were exposed to a series of fixed concentrations of phosphine at a range of exposure periods at 25 °C to characterise the resistant strain and determine if it could be controlled with phosphine.
Influence of concentration, temperature and humidity on the toxicity of phosphine to the strongly phosphine-resistant psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).
TLDR
At any concentration of phosphine, a combination of higher temperature and lower humidity provides the shortest fumigate period to control resistant L. bostrychophila, and the developed fumigation protocols will provide industry with flexibility in application of phosphorus.
Genetics of Resistance to Phosphine in Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
TLDR
The inheritance of resistance to phosphine was studied in two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, and revealed that the strong resistance phenotype was coded by a combination of the genes already present in the Weak-R genotype plus an extra major, incompletely recessive gene.
Phosphine Resistance in the Rust Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Inheritance, Gene Interactions and Fitness Costs
TLDR
The analysis of the phenotypic fitness response of a population derived from a single pair inter-strain cross between the susceptible and strongly resistant strains indicated the changes in the level of response in the strong resistance phenotype; however this effect was not consistent and apparently masked by the genetic background of the weakly resistant strain.
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