Developing a Mammary Gland is a Stāt Affair

  title={Developing a Mammary Gland is a Stāt Affair},
  author={Lothar Hennighausen and Gertraud W. Robinson and Kay-Uwe Wagner and Xiuwen Liu},
  journal={Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia},
The mammary gland is a recent acquisition on the phylogenetic scale of organ evolution and is characterized by an unparalleled regenerative capacity. With each pregnancy an expanded lobulo-alveolar compartment rises on the ductal compartment and differentiates to secrete large amounts of milk during lactation. After weaning of the young the entire alveolar compartment undergoes apoptosis and is remodeled to return to a virgin-like state. Evolution recruited old hands from existing signaling… 

Developmental stage determines the effects of MYC in the mammary epithelium

This work finds that MYC does not block postpartum lactation by inhibiting mammary epithelial differentiation, but rather by promoting differentiation and precocious lactation during pregnancy, which in turn leads to premature involution of the gland.

PML depletion disrupts normal mammary gland development and skews the composition of the mammary luminal cell progenitor pool

It is shown that PML is necessary for cell lineage determination in bi-potent luminal progenitor cells and that the precise regulation of PML expression is required for functional differentiation of alveolar cells.

Protein kinases in mammary gland development and cancer

Targeting receptor‐tyrosine kinases, the largest class of genes known to regulate growth, development, and neoplastic transformation of mammary gland, may have important implications in designing strategies against breast cancer.

Molecular Signaling of Progesterone, Growth Hormone, Wnt, and HER in Mammary Glands of Dogs, Rodents, and Humans: New Treatment Target Identification

What is known on P4, GH, and Wnt signaling in canine mammary cancer, how the family of HER receptors could interact with this signaling, and what this means for comparative and translational oncological aspects of human breast cancer development are summarized.

Essential functions of p21-activated kinase 1 in morphogenesis and differentiation of mammary glands

It is suggested that Pak1 is required for alveolar morphogenesis and lactation function, and thus, identify novel functions of Pak1 in the mammary gland development.

Transcriptome profiling of the nonlactating mammary glands of dairy goats reveals the molecular genetic mechanism of mammary cell remodeling.

This work investigated the structural changes and transcriptome characteristics of the mammary gland tissue of nonlactating dairy goats during the late lactation, the dry period, and late gestation, and found that pregnancy hormone receptors, cell growth factors and their receptors, and genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding proteins regulate the physiological process of Mammary gland involution through adaptive transcriptional changes.

Prolactin regulation of neonatal ovine uterine gland morphogenesis.

Results indicate that PRL regulates endometrial adenogenesis in the neonatal ovine uterus.

Proteomic Dissection of Dome Formation in a Mammary Cell Line

It is shown that the functional and structural changes taking place in dome-forming cells correspond to cellular changes occurring in vivo when tubules and alveoli are developed in the mammary gland at pregnancy.

Induction of Mammary Gland Differentiation in Transgenic Mice by the Fatty Acid-binding Protein MRG*

The data indicate that MRG is a mediator of the differentiating effects of pregnancy on breast epithelium, and overexpression of MRG in young nulliparous mice can induce differentiation.



Stat5a is mandatory for adult mammary gland development and lactogenesis.

It is document that Stat5a is the principal and an obligate mediator of mammopoietic and lactogenic signaling.

Hormone-dependent differentiation of mammary gland in vitro.

Mammary Gland Development in Prolactin Receptor Knockout Mice

Histological and whole mount analysis of virgin mammary glands showed that heterozygous glands were smaller in size due to a less developed ductal structure with fewer branch points, providing an ideal model to further study the role of the prolactin receptor and its ligands in mammary development and physiology.

Mammary Gland Development and Tumorigenesis in Estrogen Receptor Knockout Mice

The generation of the ER knockout (ERKO) mouse has made it possible to directly understand the contribution of ER in mammary development and has provided an unique opportunity to study estrogen action in carcinogenesis, providing the impetus to evaluate the effect of other oncogenes in Mammary tumorigenesis in the absence of estrogen/ER signaling.

Elucidation of a Role for Stromal Steroid Hormone Receptors in Mammary Gland Growth and Development Using Tissue Recombinants

Tissue recombinants in conjunction with steroid receptor deficient mice are used as a tool to dissect the complex paracrine pathways of sex-hormone-regulated epithelial growth and ductal morphogenesis in the mammary gland and other hormone target organs to demonstrate that epithelial steroid receptors are neither necessary nor sufficient for hormonal regulation of epithelial proliferation.

Activation of Stat5a and Stat5b by tyrosine phosphorylation is tightly linked to mammary gland differentiation.

The hypothesis that Stat5 is directly involved in mammary cell differentiation was tested in estrous cycle and in transgenic mice with impaired mammary development and it was demonstrated that the DNA-binding activity detected during lactation is composed of both Stat5a and Stat5b, but not of other STATs.

Developmental and environmental regulation of a mammary gland-specific nuclear factor essential for transcription of the gene encoding beta-casein.

The results suggest that the reversible activation of MGF by suckling and withdrawal might be mediated by the action of kinases and phosphatases.

Requirement of STAT5b for sexual dimorphism of body growth rates and liver gene expression.

The requirement of STAT5b to maintain sexual dimorphism of body growth rates and liver gene expression suggests thatSTAT5b may be the major, if not the sole, STAT protein that mediates the sexually dimorphic effects of GH pulses in liver and perhaps other target tissues.

Expression of a whey acidic protein transgene during mammary development. Evidence for different mechanisms of regulation during pregnancy and lactation.

Developmental and hormone induction studies suggest that WAP gene expression during pregnancy and lactation is mediated by different mechanisms, and data indicate that the 7.2-kb WAP transgene contains some but not all of the elements necessary for correct developmental regulation.

An Ets site in the whey acidic protein gene promoter mediates transcriptional activation in the mammary gland of pregnant mice but is dispensable during lactation.

Ets-signaling pathways can function as stage-specific transcriptional activators of milk protein genes in the developing mammary gland, and this work extends earlier findings that gene activation during pregnancy and lactation is mediated, in part, by different mechanisms.