Developing Mental Toughness: From Research to Practice

  title={Developing Mental Toughness: From Research to Practice},
  author={Lee Crust and Peter J. Clough},
  journal={Journal of Sport Psychology in Action},
  pages={21 - 32}
This article reviews recent evidence concerning the development of mental toughness in young athletes, from first involvement in sport through to early adulthood. The role and importance of genetics, environmental factors, and psychological-skills training in the development of mental toughness is discussed. In particular, environmental factors that can be manipulated and influenced by coaches and parents are emphasized to aid the transfer of knowledge from scientific research into applied… Expand

Paper Mentions

A Culturally Informed Approach to Mental Toughness Development in High Performance Sport
The purpose of the current paper is to explore the importance of culture in the development of Mental Toughness (MT). This is done by means of a critical review of the current literature that existsExpand
How can coaches build mental toughness? Views from sport psychologists
ABSTRACT Much has been written about athlete mental toughness in the past 15 years. Most of this literature is based on interviews with coaches, athletes, and to a lesser degree, parents. The presentExpand
Mental Toughness in Education
Mental toughness encompasses a range of positive psychological resources which have been found to be beneficial across a wide range of contexts (e.g., education, sports, work). According to the mostExpand
Mental toughness and transitions to high school and to undergraduate study
Abstract Mental toughness can be conceptualised as a set of attributes that allow people to deal effectively with challenges, stressors and pressure. Recent work has suggested that it may be aExpand
‘What it takes’: perceptions of mental toughness and its development in an English Premier League Soccer Academy
The purpose of this qualitative study was to undertake an in-depth exploration of coaches’ and support staff perceptions regarding mental toughness and its development in the pressurised andExpand
Relationships between talent development environments and mental toughness: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction
The results of structural equation modelling indicated that three environmental factors were positive predictors of needs satisfaction, which then positively predicted mental toughness, and the talent development environment may be considered for promoting talented athletes’ mental toughness. Expand
Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review
The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health, with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings. Expand
Mental Toughness and Success in Sport: A Review and Prospect
Background : Mental toughness (MT) is often referred to as one of the most important psychological attributes underpinning the success of athletes. Although selected studies have examined this commonExpand
The rocky road to the top: why talent needs trauma.
This article argues that talented potential can often benefit from, or even need, a variety of challenges to facilitate eventual adult performance, and explores some implications for the design and conduct of optimum academies and TD environments. Expand
Mental toughness in education: exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships
Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In aExpand


The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite performers
It was reported that once mental toughness had been developed, three perceived underlying mechanisms were required to maintain this construct: a desire and motivation to succeed that was insatiable and internalized, a support network that included sporting and non-sporting personnel, and effective use of basic and advanced psychological skills. Expand
The Role of Psychological Characteristics in Facilitating the Pathway to Elite Performance Part 1: Identifying Mental Skills and Behaviors
Given the complexity of the talent development process, it seems likely that a range of psychological factors underpin an athlete’s ability to translate potential into top-class performance.Expand
A review and conceptual re-examination of mental toughness: Implications for future researchers
This paper provides a review of mental toughness research and examines the major conceptual concerns that are evident in current mental toughness literature. Despite more rigorous scientificExpand
Mental toughness and athletes' use of psychological strategies
Abstract In this study, we assessed the relationship between mental toughness and athletes' use of psychological performance strategies. Sixty-seven male (mean age 22.6 years, s=5.0) and 40 femaleExpand
Leadership preferences of mentally tough athletes
Abstract This study examined the leadership preferences of mentally tough athletes. A sample of 103 athletes (M age = 22.06 years, SD = 4.37) participated and ranged from club/university level toExpand
Towards an Understanding of Mental Toughness in Australian Football
A personal construct psychology (PCP; Kelly, 1955/1991) framework was employed in an attempt to reveal a holistic understanding of mental toughness in the context of Australian Football. Eleven maleExpand
Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes
The concept of mental toughness is widely used, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand this construct and its related variables. The purpose of this paper was to explore theExpand
Mental toughness and coping in an ultra-endurance event
Objective: Research attempts to understand mental toughness have predominantly focused upon retrospective accounts of elite athletes. To facilitate a broader understanding, we investigated non-eliteExpand
Evaluation of a Mental Toughness Training Program for Youth-Aged Australian Footballers: I. A Quantitative Analysis
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different psychological skills training (PST) packages in enhancing mental toughness among three youth-aged (under 15 years old)Expand
The Role of Psychological Characteristics in Facilitating the Pathway to Elite Performance Part 2: Examining Environmental and Stage-Related Differences in Skills and Behaviors
MacNamara, Button, & Collins (under review) proposed that if individuals are to fulfill their potential they must possess and systematically develop a specific set of skills (termed PsychologicalExpand