Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: arts, democracy, and innovation in Quadruple Helix innovation systems

  title={Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: arts, democracy, and innovation in Quadruple Helix innovation systems},
  author={Elias G. Carayannis and David F. J. Campbell},
  journal={Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship},
Arts, democracy, and innovation co-evolve. While for the Triple Helix model the existence of a democracy is not necessary for knowledge production and innovation, the Quadruple Helix is here more explicit. The way how the Quadruple Helix is being engineered, designed, and ‘architected’ clearly shows that there cannot be a Quadruple Helix innovation system without democracy or a democratic context. The following attributes and components define the fourth helix in the Quadruple Helix: ‘media… Expand

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