Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century: A Review of the Evidence

@inproceedings{Nagin2013DeterrenceIT,
  title={Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century: A Review of the Evidence},
  author={Daniel S. Nagin},
  year={2013}
}
The evidence in support of the deterrent effect of the certainty of punishment is far more consistent than that for the severity of punishment. However, the evidence in support of certainty’s effect pertains almost exclusively to apprehension probability. Consequently, the more precise statement is that certainty of apprehension, not the severity of the ensuing legal consequence, is the more effective deterrent. This conclusion has important policy implications among which are that lengthy… 
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Evidence for a substantial deterrent effect is much firmer than it was two decades ago. However, large gaps in knowledge on the links between policy actions and behavior make it difficult to assess
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This Article discusses the deterrence of crime through sanctions. It begins with a brief intellectual history of deterrence theory in the work of Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, two Enlightenment
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Previous findings from perceptual studies of deterrence lead to the conclusion that perceived certainty of punishment (but not perceived severity of punishment) is inversely related to involvement in
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Whether, and the extent to which, stiffer sanctions deter crime is an integral question in fashioning corrections policy. To the extent that the behavior of the criminally inclined is completely
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Previous work dealing with the deterrent effects of legal sanctions has lacked an appropriate sociological context. This paper adopts a theoretical perspective which views legal threats as only one
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Deterrence theory describes a process of offender decision making that consists of two linkages—one in which official sanctions and other information affect a would-be offender’s perceptions about
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THE DETERRENT EFFECT OF PERCEIVED CERTAINTY AND SEVERITY OF PUNISHMENT REVISITED
This paper synthesizes and extends recent criticisms of cross-sectional and panel studies of perceptual deterrence and then uses those criticisms to design a better cross-sectional study. A series of
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