Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

  title={Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions},
  author={Stefan Bogdanov and Jean-Daniel Charri{\`e}re and Anton Imdorf and Verena Kilchenmann and Peter Fluri},
Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, ox- alic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic acid, from 11 to 119 mg/kg, n… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Residue determination in honey after a spring treatment with thymovar and formic acid
In the Netherlands Thymovar and formic acid are permitted to control the mite Varroa destructor in honeybees. Because the risk of residue in honey both Thymovar and formic acid are advised to be
A new formulation of oxalic acid for Varroa destructor control applied in Apis mellifera colonies in the presence of brood
An organic product based on oxalic acid was evaluated for use in Varroa control under spring/summer climatic conditions in Argentina and represents a good alternative to the synthetic treatments.
Formic Acid-Based Treatments for Control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean Area
Abstract Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa
Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.
Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor
Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
No queens were lost, and there was no brood or adult honeybee mortality in any of the colonies during the experiment, and average efficacy of OA was 93.40%.
Varroa control preceeding honey flow; Thymol and formic acid residue
Thymol and formic acid residues in honey in case a honey super is placed on a hive immediately after termination of a Varroa control with formic Acid or thymol (Thymovar) in early spring is determined.
Efficacy of Oxalic Acid and Apiguard against Varroa Mites in Honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) Colonies
The results indicate that OA and Apiguard are of limited use during periods with brood and mite mortality increased significantly, and levels of mite reduction were insufficient for all colonies to survive the winter.
The synergistic effect of weak oxalic acid and thymol aqueous solutions on Varroa mites and honey bees
OA/TH double trickling in autumn was shown to be toxic to bees: colonies weakened considerably the following winter and water provision reduced weakening of colonies in winter.
Stress responses of honey bees to organic acid and essential oil treatments against varroa mites
It would be more beneficial to prefer natural medicines against varroa, which lead to lower HSP 70 results which are the molecular determinants of stress.
Formic acid fumigator for controlling varroa mites in honey bee hives
The 50% FAF used with other essential oil treatments including salt-grease patties with wintergreen, feeding 1:1 syrup with Honey-B-Healthy® (spearmint and lemongrass essential oils), and use of screened bottom boards provide a synergistic effect to keep mite numbers at a relatively low level, as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) system.


The contamination level of BP, CM and FV in brood and honey combs, sugar feed and honey after field trials, and the residues in the sugarFeed and honey were much lower than in the combs and were all below the Swiss MRL (maximum residue limit).
The present study determines the sensory thresholds for Formic, oxalic and lactic acid, as well as thymol, used world-wide against Varroa as alternatives to synthetic acaricides and also for menthol and camphor, two other natural varroacides.
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Organic Acids in Honeys from Different Botanical Origin
A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of organic acids in honeys, is reported. The components were removed from the matrix by solid-phase extraction with anion
Honey quality, methods of analysis and international regulatory standards: Review of the work of the International Honey Commission
International honey standards are specified in a European Honey Directive and in the Codex Alimentarius Standard for Honey, both of which are presently under revision. In this article, present
Determination of oxalate, sulfate and nitrate in honey and honeydew by ion-chromatography.
The resistance of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. to acaricides
'Moderation tactics' seem to be more suitable than 'high dose tactics' to delay the selection of resistant Varroa strains.
Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR® treatment
L'Apilife VAR®, dont le thymol constitue la principale matiere active, est un varroacide efficace, enregistre depuis 1996 en Suisse dans la lutte contre l'acarien Varroa jacobsoni. On a examine les
Varroacides and their residues in bee products
La discussion sur le caractere dangereux des residus porte atteinte a l'image positive qu'a le public de ces produits d'acarien Varroa jacobsoni dans de nombreux pays.
Production of Organic Acids in Honey by Honeybees
蜂蜜生成過程における蜜のpH低下の要因を明らかにした. (1) 生成過程において酸度が増加するのは,おもにグルコン酸やクレブスサイクルに関係する有機酸が生成するためである. (2) 花蜜自体,あるいは生成時に混入する花粉粒によってはpH低下や酸度増加は起こらず,蜜蜂の分泌酵素によって起こる. (3)
Fünf Ameisensäure-Dispenser im Vergleich
In den letzten beiden Jahren sind verschiedene Dispenser fur die Langzeitbehandlung von Bienenvolker mit Ameisensaure gegen die Varroa auf den Markt gekommen. Mit den 5 in der Schweiz am meisten