Determination of Phylloquinone and Menaquinones in Food

@article{Schurgers2000DeterminationOP,
  title={Determination of Phylloquinone and Menaquinones in Food},
  author={Leon J. Schurgers and Cees Vermeer},
  journal={Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis},
  year={2000},
  volume={30},
  pages={298 - 307}
}
Fluctuations in international normalized ratio values are often ascribed to dietary changes in vitamin K intake. Here we present a database with vitamin K<sub>1</sub> and K<sub>2</sub> contents of a wide variety of food items. K<sub>1</sub> was mainly present in green vegetables and plant margarins, K<sub>2</sub> in meat, liver, butter, egg yolk, natto, cheese and curd cheese. To investigate the effect of the food matrix on vitamin K bioavailability, 6 healthy male volunteers consumed either a… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A simultaneous determination and monitoring of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone) in vegetable drinks and natto sold on the Korean market

A simultaneous sample preparation for vitamins K 1 (phylloquinone) and K 2 (menaquinones MK4 and MK7) was developed for vegetable drinks and natto by solvent extraction optimization for each matrix.

The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health.

TLDR
It is concluded that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health, and there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.

Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women

TLDR
It is concluded that MK-4 present in food does not contribute to the vitamin K status as measured by serum vitamin K levels, howeverMK-7 significantly increases serum MK-7 levels and therefore may be of particular importance for extrahepatic tissues.

Vitamin k contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the u.s. Diet.

TLDR
The findings of this analysis indicate that no single food item in these categories is a rich dietary source of any one form of vitamin K, however, these foods are often consumed in large quantities; hence, they may be of importance in overall contribution to total vitamin K intake.

Vitamin K content of foods and dietary vitamin K intake in Japanese young women.

TLDR
Dietary vitamin K intake in young women living in eastern Japan was assessed using vitamin K contents measured here and the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, and PK from vegetables and algae and MK-7 from pulses were the major contributors.

Influence of dietary menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (vitamin K3) and phylloquinone (vitamin K1) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissue levels, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

TLDR
Investigation of the retention of menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB; vitamin K3) and phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 in Atlantic salmon found a substantial loss of MNB during feed production and vitamin K supplementation in fish feed needs a revision.

Treatment of natto, a fermented soybean preparation, to prevent excessive plasma vitamin K concentrations in patients taking warfarin.

TLDR
Boiling natto did not cause a marked increase in the plasma concentration of vitamin K in subjects who consumed it, and patients on warfarin may be able to eat boiled natto without ill effects.

Safety and toxicological evaluation of a synthetic vitamin K2, menaquinone-7

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is part of a family of vitamin K that are essential co-factors for the enzyme γ-glutamyl carboxylase, which is involved in the activation of γ-carboxy glutamate (Gla) proteins in
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 37 REFERENCES

Nutritional Intake of Vitamins K1 (Phylloquinone) and K2 (Menaquinone) in The Netherlands

TLDR
It is concluded that K1 is the major form of nutritional vitamin K, that total vitamin K intake is higher than in other populations described and that the correlation betweenitamin K intake and serum concentration is poor.

Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects.

TLDR
There was no difference in phylloquinone absorption from fresh or cooked broccoli or from fresh romaine lettuce consumed with a meal containing 30 or 45% energy as fat.

Comparative metabolism of phylloquinone and menaquinone-9 in rat liver.

TLDR
Phylloquinone was much more effective than MK-9 in maintaining normal vitamin K status at low dietary concentrations, whereas at high dietary concentrations they were equally effective.

Intestinal flora is not an intermediate in the phylloquinone-menaquinone-4 conversion in the rat.

Phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 distribution in rats: synthesis rather than uptake determines menaquinone-4 organ concentrations.

TLDR
The study shows the following: dietary phylloquinone is accumulated mainly in the heart and liver, the MK-4 accumulation in nonhepatic organs is due to synthesis rather than uptake andMK-4 rather than phyllaquinone may be the functional vitamin in non hepatics organs.

Compilation of a provisional UK database for the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods†

TLDR
Within the scope of this present study, it has not been possible to address issues such as inter-sample variability, losses during storage or the bioavailability from different foods and further work on these aspects is needed.

Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health.

TLDR
A majority (approximately 60-70%) of the daily dietary intake of phylloquinone is lost to the body by excretion, which emphasizes the need for a continuous dietary supply to maintain tissue reserves.

The contribution of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) produced by the intestinal microflora to human nutritional requirements for vitamin K.

TLDR
Data provide direct evidence for the absorption of vitamin K2 from the distal small bowel, supporting a definite role for bacterially synthesized vitamin K1 in contributing to the human nutritional requirements of this vitamin.

Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers

TLDR
The bioavailability of membrane-bound phylloquinone is extremely poor and may depend on other food components, notably fat, which may lead to a revision of the recommended daily intake for vitamin K.

Vitamin K metabolism and nutriture.