New Automated and High-Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Urinary Ketones by Multifiber Exchange-Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled to Fast Gas Chromatography/Negative Chemical-Electron Ionization/Mass Spectrometry
Three methods for the determination of 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) in urine were compared in order to assess their applicability for toxicokinetic studies and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to n-hexane. Two of them were based on derivatization, followed by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Of these two, one is a modification of the other, already published, method. The third one involves direct extraction of 2,5-HD followed by gas chromatography and flame-ionization detection. To determine 2,5-HD in urine of workers occupationally exposed to n-hexane, the most straightforward method, direct extraction of 2,5-HD from urine, has been proven to be the most suitable. However, in case of very low concentrations of 2,5-HD in urine, or analysis of small samples of blood, e.g. in kinetic studies, it is necessary to use a more sensitive procedure. The sensitivity of the methods based on the derivatization of 2,5-HD followed by electron-capture detection, was, as expected, much higher in terms of analytical reliability. By using these methods, however, precautions are necessary to avoid a matrix effect.