Determination and stability of sex

  title={Determination and stability of sex},
  author={Chris Ottolenghi and Manuela Uda and Laura Crisponi and Shakib Omari and Antonio Cao and Antonino Forabosco and David Schlessinger},
How is the embryonic bipotential gonad regulated to produce either an ovary or a testis? In males, transient early activation of the Y chromosome Sry gene makes both germ cells and soma male. However, in females, available evidence suggests that the process of ovary sex determination may take place independently in the germline and somatic lineages. In addition, in contrast to testis, in ovary somatic cells, female‐to‐male gonadal sex reversal can occur at times throughout ovary development and… 
Transcriptional control of ovarian development in somatic cells.
It is inferred that peak transcription activity just precedes the two most decisive steps of early ovary differentiation, and that some features of differentiation are labile, contingent on the expression state of critical factors.
Determination and stability of gonadal sex.
The results support the proposal of dose-dependent Foxl2 function and antitestis action and a partial working model for somatic development and sex determination is presented in which Sox9 is a direct antagonist of Foxl 2 in the supporting cell lineage.
FOXL2 versus SOX9: A lifelong “battle of the sexes”
  • R. Veitia
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2010
It is shown that the ovary constantly represses male‐specific genes, from embryonic stages to adulthood, and the absence of the crucial ovarian transcription factor FOXL2 (alone or in combination with other factors) induces a derepression of male-specific genes during development, postnatally and, even more interestingly, during adulthood.
Loss of Wnt4 and Foxl2 leads to female-to-male sex reversal extending to germ cells.
It is demonstrated that inactivation of two ovarian somatic factors, Wnt4 and Foxl2, produces testis differentiation in XX mice, resulting in the formation of testis tubules and spermatogonia.
Mammalian foetal ovarian development: consequences for health and disease.
A better understanding of these early cellular and morphological events will facilitate further study into the regulation of oocyte development, manifestation of ovarian disease and basis of female infertility.
Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development
BackgroundPartial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of
Gonadal soma controls ovarian follicle proliferation through Gsdf in zebrafish
In zebrafish, gsdf regulates ovarian follicle maturation and expression of genes for steroid biosynthesis, obesity, diabetes, and female fertility, leading to ovarian and extra‐ovarian phenotypes that mimic human polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), suggesting a role for a related TGFB signaling molecule in the etiology of PCOS.
Gonadal mRNA Expression Levels of TGFβ Superfamily Signaling Factors Correspond with Post-Hatching Morphological Development in American Alligators
It is proposed that the mRNA expression levels and concomitant morphological changes observed here affect the establishment of alligator reproductive health and later fertility.


One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development
The old and new players that are involved in the initial steps of testis and ovary development are reviewed.
Foxl2 is required for commitment to ovary differentiation.
It is found that mouse XX gonads lacking the forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 form meiotic prophase oocytes, but then activate the genetic program for somatic testis determination, suggesting the possible continued involvement of sex-determining genes in maintaining ovarian function throughout female reproductive life.
Role of mammalian Y chromosome in sex determination.
  • P. Burgoyne
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1988
It is suggested that all other aspects of foetal testicular development are triggered by the Sertoli cells without further Y-chromosome involvement, and this model equates mammalian sex determination with SERToli-cell determination.
Minireview: transcriptional regulation of gonadal development and differentiation.
The molecular pathways that regulate the distinct differentiation of these cell types in the developing testis and ovary are summarized and transcription factors that initiate these cascades are focused on.
Sex determination in mammals.
XX Germ Cells: The Difference Between an Ovary and a Testis
Sexually Dimorphic Regulation of Inhibin Beta B in Establishing Gonadal Vasculature in Mice1
Results indicate that the sex-specific formation of the coelomic vessel is established by positive components in the testis as well as an antagonizing pathway from the ovary, and inhibin beta B is strategically positioned at the intersection of these opposing pathways.
Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads
It is suggested that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway, based on the immunodetection of meiotic markers.