Associations of Haplotypes Upstream of IRS1 with Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Preclinical Atherosclerosis, and Skeletal Muscle LOC646736 mRNA Levels
OBJECTIVE Apolipoprotein A-V (apoAV) contributes to the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases. We therefore ascertained determinants of hepatic APOA5 transcript and apoAV plasma levels in humans. DESIGN We determined influences of anthropometric variables, biochemical factors related to lipid and glucose metabolism, hepatic mRNA levels transcribed from the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster and transcription factor genes implicated in the regulation of APOA5 as well as common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the APOA5 locus on APOA5 expression in 89 obese patients and 22 non-obese controls. RESULTS Mean, age and sex adjusted, hepatic APOA5 mRNA or apoAV plasma levels did not differ by obesity status, homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance or inflammatory markers. In multivariate regression models, the c56C > G SNP, plasma apoCIII, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, hepatic APOA5 transcripts, sex and a weak association with obesity status explained 61% of the variance in apoAV plasma levels. Hepatic transcript levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1A1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), plasma nonesterified fatty acids and the c56C > G SNP explained 48% of the variance in hepatic APOA5 transcript levels. CONCLUSION Apolipoprotein A-V plasma levels are independently associated with plasma free fatty acid and hepatic APOA5 mRNA levels. Associations of APOA5 transcripts with PPARA and CPT1A1 transcripts suggest that APOA5 expression is intimately linked to hepatic lipid metabolism.