OBJECTIVE According to the Health Belief Model (HBM), individual perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefit, barrier, self-efficacy, and cues to action are associated with health actions. In this study, we investigated the perceptions and social factors that influence the intention to vaccinate children against influenza among parents of young Taiwanese children. METHODS A nationwide survey was performed using stratified random sampling to explore the beliefs, attitudes, and intentions of parents/main caregivers with regard to vaccinating children aged 6 months to 3 years against influenza. A questionnaire was developed based on the HBM and multivariate logistic regression analyses of 1300 eligible participants were used to identify significant predictors of the intention to vaccinate. RESULTS Greater perceived benefit, cues to action, and self-efficacy of childhood vaccination against influenza were positively associated with the intention to vaccinate. Children's experience of influenza vaccinations in the past year was also a positive predictor. However, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity regarding influenza and perceived barriers to vaccination were not predictive of the intention to vaccinate. CONCLUSION In addition to perceived benefits and cues to action, self-efficacy of parents/main caregivers was significantly predictive of their intention to accept influenza vaccination for their young children. These components of the HBM could be used in formulating strategies aimed at promoting the use of influenza vaccine.