Determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with intermediate levels of alpha-antitrypsin.


We examined elderly heterozygotes for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype MZ) to determine which of several factors might be associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Elderly heterozygotes who smoked had a very high incidence of COPD (70 per cent), whereas homozygotes (phenotype MM) who smoked had a significantly… (More)


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