Determinants of Effort Intolerance in Patients With Heart Failure: Combined Echocardiography and Cardiopulmonary Stress Protocol.


OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess individual mechanisms of effort intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), or normal cardiac function using combined echocardiography and cardiopulmonary stress testing. BACKGROUND Combined stress… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.05.010


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