Detection of the gravitational redshift in the orbit of the star S2 near the Galactic centre massive black hole

@article{Abuter2018DetectionOT,
  title={Detection of the gravitational redshift in the orbit of the star S2 near the Galactic centre massive black hole},
  author={Gravity Collaboration R. Abuter and Ant{\'o}nio Amorim and N. Anugu and Michi Baubock and Myriam Benisty and J. P. Berger and Nicolas Blind and Henri Bonnet and Wolfgang Brandner and Alexander Buron and Claude Collin and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Chapron and Yann Cl'enet and Vincent Coud'e du Foresto and P. T. de Zeeuw and Casey Deen and Franccoise Delplancke-Strobele and Roderick Dembet and Jason Dexter and G. Duvert and Andreas Eckart and Frank Eisenhauer and Gert Finger and Natascha M. Forster Schreiber and Pierre F'edou and P. Garcia and Ram{\'o}n J. Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez and Feng Gao and Eric Gendron and Reinhard Genzel and Stefan Gillessen and Paulo Gordo and Maryam Habibi and X. Haubois and Marcus Haug and Frank Haussmann and Th. Henning and Stephen Hippler and M. Horrobin and Zolt{\'a}n Hubert and Norbert N. Hubin and A. Jim{\'e}nez Rosales and L. Jochum and L. Jocou and A. Kaufer and Stefan Kellner and Sarah Kendrew and Pierre Kervella and Yitping Kok and Martin Kulas and Sylvestre Lacour and Vincent Lapeyr{\`e}re and Bernard Lazareff and J.-B. Le Bouquin and Pierre L'ena and Magdalena Lippa and Rainer Lenzen and Antoine M'erand and E. Muller and Udo Neumann and Thomas Ott and L. Palanca and T. Paumard and Luca Pasquini and K. Perraut and Guy Perrin and Oliver Pfuhl and Philipp M. Plewa and Sebastian Rabien and A. Ram'irez and Jos{\'e} Ricardo Ramos and Christian Rau and Gustavo Rodr'iguez-Coira and R. R. Rohloff and G'erard Rousset and Joel Sanchez-Bermudez and Silvia Scheithauer and Markus Scholler and N. Schuler and Jason Spyromilio and Odele Straub and C. Straubmeier and Eckhard Sturm and Linda J. Tacconi and Konrad R. W. Tristram and Frederic H. Vincent and S. D. von Fellenberg and Imke Wank and Idel Waisberg and Felix Widmann and Ekkehard Wieprecht and Michael Wiest and Erich Wiezorrek and Julien Woillez and S. Yazici and Denis Ziegler and G{\'e}rard Zins},
  journal={Astronomy \& Astrophysics},
  year={2018}
}
The highly elliptical, 16-year-period orbit of the star S2 around the massive black hole candidate Sgr A✻ is a sensitive probe of the gravitational field in the Galactic centre. Near pericentre at 120 AU ≈ 1400 Schwarzschild radii, the star has an orbital speed of ≈7650 km s−1, such that the first-order effects of Special and General Relativity have now become detectable with current capabilities. Over the past 26 years, we have monitored the radial velocity and motion on the sky of S2, mainly… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Detection of the Schwarzschild precession in the orbit of the star S2 near the Galactic centre massive black hole

The star S2 orbiting the compact radio source Sgr A* is a precision probe of the gravitational field around the closest massive black hole (candidate). Over the last 2.7 decades we have monitored the

Periastron shift of compact stellar orbits from general relativistic and tidal distortion effects near Sgr A*

The Galactic Centre (Sgr A*), hosting a supermassive black hole, carries sufficient potential for testing gravitational theories. Existing astrometric facilities on Very Large Telescope (VLT) and

Constraints on alternative theories of gravity with observations of the Galactic Center

To evaluate a potential usually one analyzes trajectories of test particles. For the Galactic Center case astronomers use bright stars or photons, so there are two basic observational techniques to

Orbits of Bright Stars Near the Galactic Center as a Tool to Test Gravity Theories

  • A. Zakharov
  • Physics
    Moscow University Physics Bulletin
  • 2022
Abstract Precise observations of trajectories of bright stars near the Galactic Center give an opportunity to evaluate the gravitational potential since bounded stars move along the trajectories

A significant feature in the general relativistic time evolution of the redshift of photons coming from a star orbiting Sgr A*

The star S0-2, orbiting the Galactic central massive black hole candidate Sgr A$^\ast$, passed its pericenter in 2018 May. This event is the first chance to detect the general relativistic (GR)

Relativistic redshift of the star S0-2 orbiting the Galactic Center supermassive black hole

TLDR
A combination of special relativistic and gravitational redshift is detected, quantified using the redshift parameter ϒ, which is consistent with general relativity and excludes a Newtonian model with a statistical significance of 5σ.

Gravitational waves from bodies orbiting the Galactic center black hole and their detectability by LISA

Aims. We present the first fully relativistic study of gravitational radiation from bodies in circular equatorial orbits around the massive black hole at the Galactic center, Sgr A* and we assess the

Detection of the LMC-induced sloshing of the Galactic halo

A wealth of recent studies have shown that the LMC is likely massive, with a halo mass >1011 M⊙. One consequence of having such a nearby and massive neighbour is that the inner Milky Way is

Investigating the nature of mass distribution surrounding the Galactic supermassive black hole

In the past three decades, many stars orbiting about the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic Centre (Sgr A*) were identified. Their orbital nature can give stringent constraints for the

The Galactic Center: An Improved Astrometric Reference Frame for Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole

Precision measurements of the stars in short-period orbits around the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center are now being used to constrain general relativistic effects, such as the
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 83 REFERENCES

Investigating the Relativistic Motion of the Stars Near the Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

The S-star cluster in the Galactic center allows us to study the physics close to a supermassive black hole, including distinctive dynamical tests of general relativity. Our best estimates for the

MONITORING STELLAR ORBITS AROUND THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

We present the results of 16 years of monitoring stellar orbits around the massive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, using high-resolution near-infrared techniques. This work refines our

General relativistic effects on the orbit of the S2 star with GRAVITY

Context. The first observations of the GRAVITY instrument obtained in 2016, have shown that it should become possible to probe the spacetime close to the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr

Gravitationally redshifted emission implying an accretion disk and massive black hole in the active galaxy MCG–6–30–15

ACTIVE galactic nuclei and quasars are probably powered by the accretion of gas onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of the host galaxy1, but direct confirmation of the presence of a black

The Stellar Cusp around the Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

We analyze deep near-IR adaptive optics imaging (taken with NAOS/CONICA on the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, Chile), as well as new proper-motion data of the nuclear star

Testing properties of the Galactic center black hole using stellar orbits

The spin and quadrupole moment of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center can in principle be measured via astrometric monitoring of stars orbiting at milliparsec distances, allowing tests

The Galactic Centre star S2 as a dynamical probe for intermediate-mass black holes

We study the short-term effects of an intermediate mass black hole (IBH) on the orbit of star S2 (S02), the shortest-period star known to orbit the supermassive black hole (MBH) in the centre of the

Toward the event horizon—the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

The center of our Galaxy hosts the best constrained supermassive black hole in the universe, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Its mass and distance have been accurately determined from stellar orbits and

Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center.

TLDR
This analysis provides the first fully self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole, which can be used to constrain various gravitational and astrophysical theories.

Twelve Years of Spectroscopic Monitoring in the Galactic Center: The Closest Look at S-stars near the Black Hole

We study the young S-stars within a distance of 0.04 pc from the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy. Given how inhospitable the region is for star formation, their presence is more
...