1H-decoupled 13C NMR spectra (20.2 MHz) of the living rabbit brain were collected with a surface coil following the intravenous infusion of [1-13C]glucose. Within 15 min of infusion, the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were detected and, shortly thereafter, the carbon atoms at positions C4, C3, and C2 of glutamate and(or) glutamine. After reductions of inspired oxygen from 30 to 5%, lactate C3 was detected. The intensity of the lactate resonance rose progressively during hypoxia and later fell during recovery with oxygen. The 13C fractional isotopic enrichment of arterial blood glucose was measured by 1H NMR providing information on the rate and extent of blood glucose labeling.