Detection of diazepam in urine, hair and preserved oral fluid samples with LC-MS-MS after single and repeated administration of Myolastan® and Valium®

@article{Laloup2007DetectionOD,
  title={Detection of diazepam in urine, hair and preserved oral fluid samples with LC-MS-MS after single and repeated administration of Myolastan{\textregistered} and Valium{\textregistered}},
  author={Marleen Laloup and Mar{\'i}a del Mar Ram{\'i}rez Fern{\'a}ndez and Michelle Wood and Viviane Maes and Gert De Boeck and Yvan Vanbeckevoort and Nele Samyn},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
  year={2007},
  volume={388},
  pages={1545-1556}
}
Sedative agents are used to facilitate sexual assault due to their ability to render the victim passive, submissive and unable to resist. The primary pharmacological effect of the benzodiazepine tetrazepam is muscle relaxation, whereas the benzodiazepine diazepam acts on the central nervous system (CNS) exerting mainly sedation effects. Therefore, contrary to tetrazepam, diazepam is an often-abused drug, which can potentially be used as a date-rape drug. In this study, we describe the detection… 
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Urine appears as the best specimen to document exposure, particularly if LC-MS/MS is used in case of drug-facilitated crimes involving lorazepam, and despite a limit of quantitation at 1 pg/mg, the authors were unable to detect a single lorzepam dose in hair, contrarily to most other benzodiazepines that are detectable.
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TLDR
The purported enhancement of sexuality, coupled with a possible abrupt coma-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks have resulted in the use of hypnotics to facilitated a sex offence by developing an original analytical method in oral fluid to document zolpidem exposure.
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TLDR
Hair testing by LC-MS/MS recorded two cases involving alprazolam (Xanax), an anxiolytic benzodiazepine, obtained from an adolescent who had been forced to prostitute herself and a 12-year-old girl, assaulted by her father who had sedated her three or four times.
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TLDR
A LC-MS/MS method for the detection of zolpidem in hair was developed to detect this drug after a single dose in possible drug facilitated sexual assaults, demonstrating likely previous drug use in addition to recent exposure associated with a positive blood result.
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