New ELISAs for detecting macroamylase or free autoantibodies to amylase were tested with 48 samples that had been characterized by gel chromatography and electrophoresis. The macroamylase ELISA, with anti-IgG or anti-IgA for detection, detected macroamylase in 28 of 33 samples known to contain macroamylase (85% sensitivity), whereas the ELISA for free autoantibody to amylase was positive for only 11 samples. Specificities of both ELISAs were 93%. Among 28 true positives detected with the macroamylase ELISA, 22 contained IgA, 3 contained IgG, and 3 contained both immunoglobulins. Detection of IgM added no true positives. ELISA responses (y) were proportional to log [macroamylase concentration by chromatography (x)] from 0 to 1200 U/L: y = 5.15 x + 1.66; r = 0.72; Sy x = 1.65. As new tools for detecting macroenzymes consisting of enzyme-autoantibody complexes, the ELISAs show that some autoantibodies are detected more sensitively as antibody-antigen complexes than as free antibody.