Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume

@article{Colaprete2010DetectionOW,
  title={Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume},
  author={A. Colaprete and Peter H. Schultz and Jennifer L. Heldmann and Diane H. Wooden and M Shirley and Kimberly Ennico and Brendan Hermalyn and William Marshall and Antonio J. Ricco and Richard Elphic and David B. Goldstein and Dustin Summy and G. D. Bart and Erik Asphaug and D G Korycansky and Dave Landis and L. S. Sollitt},
  journal={Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={330},
  pages={463 - 468}
}
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor. The goal of this event, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) experiment, was to search for water and other volatiles in the soil of one of the coldest places on the Moon: the permanently shadowed region within the Cabeus crater. Using ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared… 

LRO-LAMP Observations of the LCROSS Impact Plume

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that revealed water and other volatiles expected to be trapped in lunar polar soils.

The LCROSS Cratering Experiment

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that revealed water and other volatiles within the ejecta cloud.

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of the LCROSS Impact

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that plunged through the lunar soil, revealing water and other volatiles.

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of Cold Traps in the Moon’s South Polar Region

TLDR
The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

Hydrogen Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Using the LRO Neutron Detector Experiment LEND

TLDR
The LCROSS impact site inside the Cabeus crater demonstrates the highest hydrogen concentration in the lunar south polar region, corresponding to an estimated content of 0.5 to 4.0% water ice by weight, depending on the thickness of any overlying dry regolith layer.

Characterization of the LCROSS impact plume from a ground-based imaging detection.

TLDR
The first visible observations of the LCROSS ejecta plume from Earth are reported, ascertaining the morphology of the plume to contain a minimum of two separate components, placing limits on ejecta velocities at multiple angles, and permitting an independent estimate of the illuminated ejecta mass.

Water within a permanently shadowed lunar crater: Further LCROSS modeling and analysis

Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft

The Young Age of the LAMP‐observed Frost in Lunar Polar Cold Traps

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet instrument detected a 0.5–2% icy regolith mix on the floor of some of the southern pole permanently shadowed craters of
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References

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LRO-LAMP Observations of the LCROSS Impact Plume

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that revealed water and other volatiles expected to be trapped in lunar polar soils.

The LCROSS Cratering Experiment

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that revealed water and other volatiles within the ejecta cloud.

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of the LCROSS Impact

TLDR
Watering the Moon About a year ago, a spent upper stage of an Atlas rocket was deliberately crashed into a crater at the south pole of the Moon, ejecting a plume of debris, dust, and vapor that plunged through the lunar soil, revealing water and other volatiles.

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations of Cold Traps in the Moon’s South Polar Region

TLDR
The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

Hydrogen Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Using the LRO Neutron Detector Experiment LEND

TLDR
The LCROSS impact site inside the Cabeus crater demonstrates the highest hydrogen concentration in the lunar south polar region, corresponding to an estimated content of 0.5 to 4.0% water ice by weight, depending on the thickness of any overlying dry regolith layer.

Detection of Adsorbed Water and Hydroxyl on the Moon

TLDR
Space-based spectroscopic measurements provide evidence for water or hydroxyl (OH) on the surface of the Moon and imply that solar wind is depositing and/or somehow forming water and OH in minerals near the lunar surface, and that this trapped water is dynamic.

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Lunar Hydration As Observed by the Deep Impact Spacecraft

TLDR
Analysis of recent infrared mapping by Chandrayaan-1 and Deep Impact and reexamining Cassini data obtained during its early flyby of the Moon reveals a noticeable absorption signal for H2O and OH across much of the surface, suggesting solar wind is depositing and/or somehow forming water and OH in minerals near the lunar surface, and that this trapped water is dynamic.

Character and Spatial Distribution of OH/H2O on the Surface of the Moon Seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1

TLDR
Analysis of recent infrared mapping by Chandrayaan-1 and Deep Impact, and reexamining Cassini data obtained during its early flyby of the Moon, Pieters et al. reveal a noticeable absorption signal for H2O and OH across much of the surface, implying that solar wind is depositing and/or somehow forming water and OH in minerals near the lunar surface, and that this trapped water is dynamic.

Ice in the lunar polar regions

The idea that ice and other trapped volatiles exist in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles was proposed by Watson, Murray, and Brown [1961]. It is reexamined in the present paper, in